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Ethanol, water and ethanol/water mix were used to directly liquefy Detarium senegalense bark at 500°C for 15 min. Ethanol/water mix at 50/50% weight by weight showed synergistic effect on biomass direct liquefaction, and was found to be the most effective solvent for the liquefaction of Detarium senegalense bark. Water was more active than Ethanol when both mono-solvents were evaluated. Liquefaction with 100% water yielded 46% by weight of the bio-oil, compared with 30% by weight of bio-oil yield when 100% ethanol was used. The result however, show that 50% ethanol/water showed a synergistic effect and work best to obtain 52% bio-oil on the liquefaction whereas water was found hence more active than ethanol as a single solvent with 46% and 30% bio-oil respectively.
The GC-MS analysis of the obtained bio-oils from the three matrices confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds and aromatics such as benzenes, followed by aldehydes, long chain ketones and cyclic ketones and alcohol, esters, organic acids and ether compounds. The detected phenolic compounds were 4-ethyl-guaiacol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol., formed from the cleavage of guaiacyl and hydroxyphenyl-type lignin with varying degrees of alcohol substitution. Understanding and evaluating the liquefied products obtained from hardwood barks, could offer valuable information on the utilization of the biomass-liquefaction products for chemical or energy production.
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