Main Article Content
Optimum design and selection of storage type electric water heaters were analyzed for energy conservation. The thermal performance of a single tank electric water heater is compared with that of partitioned electric water heater for the same average domestic hourly hot water use pattern according to Becker’s profile. Both water heaters have the same volume capacity and total power rating while the temperature of the hot water was kept between 60 and 65oC. It is concluded that a partitioned electric water heater provides more hot water and reduces energy consumption whereas the upper part of the tank has 25% of the total volume and 75% of the total power rating.
To evaluate single tank and partitioned electric water heaters transient energy balance equations have been derived and solved. Some assumptions made and thermodynamic properties received to use the evaluate differential equations. To represent water heater models equations required data obtained from literature.
Nelson JEB, Balakrishnan AR, Murthy SS. Parametric studies on thermally stratified chilled water storage systems. Applied Thermal Engineering. 1997;19:89-115.
Oliveski RDC, Krenzinger A, Vielma HA. Comparison between models for the simulation of hot water storage tanks. Solar Energy. 2003;75:121-134.
Rankin R, Rousseau PG. (2006). Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design. Energy Conversion and Management. 2006;47:687-701.
Kar AK, Kar U. Optimum design and selection of residential storage type electric water heaters for energy conservation. Energy Converse. 1996;66(1996):12-24.
Carrington CG, Warrington DM, Yak YC (1997). Structure of domestic hot water consumption. Energy Research. 1997;11: 145-151.
Sezai I, Aldabbagh LBY, Atikol U, Hacisevki H. Performance improvement by using dual heaters in storage – type domestic electric water heater. Applied Energy. 2004;81(3):291-305.
Ismail KAR, Leal JFB, Zanardi MA. Models of liquid storage tanks. Energy. 1997;22(8): 805-815.
Hegazy AA, Diab MR. Performance of an improved design for storage-type domestic electrical water-heaters. Applied Energy. 2002;71:287–306.
Bansal PK. Performance Analysis of Low-Pressure Household Water Heaters. ASHRAE Transactions. 2004:1(10):196-203.
Yoo H, Kim CJ, Kim CW. Approximate analytical solutions for stratified thermal storage under variable inlet temperature. Solar Energy. 1999;66:47-56.
Kleinbach EM, Beckman WA, Klein SA. Performance Study of One Dimensional Models for Stratified Thermal Storage Tanks. Solar Energy. 1993;50(2):155-166.
Sateikis I. Determination of the amount of thermal energy in the tanks of buildings heating systems. Energy and Buildings. 2002;34:357-361.
Cristofari C Notton G, Poggi P, Louche A. Influence of the flow rate and the tank stratification degree on the performance of a solar flat-plate collector. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 2003;42: 455-469.
Jordan U, Furbo S. Thermal stratification in small solar domestic storage tanks caused by draw-offs. Solar Energy. 2005;78:291-300.
Cook RE. Effects of stratification in performance and control of residential electric water heaters. ASHRAE Trans. 1980;86(3):927-937.
Kar AK, Al-Dossary KM. Thermal Performances of Water Heaters in Series. Applied Energy. 1995;52:47-53.
Gari HN, Loehrke RI. A controlled buoyant jet for enhancing stratification in a liquid storage tank. J. Fluids Engineering. 1992; 104:475-486.
Bejan A, Tsatsaronis G, Moran M. Thermal Design and Optimization, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York; 1996.
Bejan A. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics, 3rd Ed., John Wiley and Sons. NewYork; 2006.
Lavan Z, Thompson T. Experimental study of thermally stratified hot water storage tanks. Solar Energy. 1997;19:519-523.
Van Koppen CWJ Thomas JP Veltkamp WB. The actual benefits of thermally stratified storage in small and medium sized solar systems. Proc. of ISES Biennial Meeting, Atlanta, GA. 1979;2:576-583.
Duffie JA, Beckman WA. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. 2nd ed. John Wiley, New York; 1991.
He Y, Liu M, Kvan T, Yan L. A quantity-quality-based optimization method for indoor thermal environment design. Energy. 2019;170:1261-1278.
Sabau AS, Bejan A, Brownell D, Gluesenkamp K, Murphy B, List F, Carver K, Schaichn CR, Klett JW. Design, additive manufacturing, and performance of heat exchanger with a novel flow-path architecture. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2020;180(5)115775.
Fuentes-Cortés LF, González-Bravo R, Flores-Tlacuahuac A, Ponce-Ortega JM. Optimal sustainable water-energy storage strategies for off-grid systems in low-income communities. Computers and Chemical Engineering. 2019;123:87–109.
Luong ND, Ha UTT, Hung P,T Minh B. Investigating urban household water - energy nexus towards supporting sustainable and smart city policies: The case of Hanoi City, Vietnam.IOP Conf. Series: Materials. Materials Science and Engineering. IOP Publishing. 2020;869: 022033. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/869/2/022033
Tavakoli MH, Moharramkhani K. Numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer in a gas-tank water heater. Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer Research. 2015;2:21-29.