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Aims: Analyze the thermal quality provided by the building elements of Huichol vernacular housing concerning the climatic conditions of San Andrés Cohamiata, Jalisco.
Study Design: The analysis was performed through a simulation of computer housing, for which the characteristics of the materials and EPW (Energy Plus Weather) data of 2018 from the study area were applied to the model, analyzed in programs such as 2D Sun-Path, 3D Sun-Path and Opaque.
Place and Duration of Study: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Graduate of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, between January and March 2019.
Methodology: First, a bibliographic and field study was carried out to verify the materials and construction processes of Huichol housing. The computer housing model was designed to apply the characteristics of the materials, as well as the location and orientation handled by the Huichol ethnic group. Subsequently, EPW (Energy Plus Weather) data from the study area were introduced to opaque software to perform thermal analysis of the house and various factors are studied such as thermal mass and insulation, heat gain/loss, direct radiation, diffuse, dry bulb temperature, among others. Also, in software such as 2D Sun-Path and 3D Sun-Path, the study of sunbathing and shadows of the house was carried out.
Results: The orientation of the house allows them to make better use of solar radiation at different times of the year. Its construction elements (wall thickness, material, and ceiling structure) decrease the overheating of the space in summer. Adobe walls have a thermal delay of 4 hours, and internal conditions are optimal to maintain thermal comfort in summer and winter. Internal temperatures during the year range from 20 to 25°C.
Conclusions: Huichol culture has important knowledge in the construction with natural materials, as these allow positive thermal behaviour in the face of the climatic conditions of the area throughout the year. These housing characteristics may apply to other ethnic groups in the region with limited economic resources, to improve their living conditions.
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