Design of Grid-connected and Stand-alone Photovoltaic Systems for Residential Energy Usage: A Technical Analysis
Journal of Energy Research and Reviews,
Towards realizing the United Nations sustainable development goals, access to clean, cheap and reliable energy, especially electricity, has been considered as one of the vital indices in any community. Hence, this paper presents the design analysis of both a grid-connected and an offgrid photovoltaic (PV) systems for household users in the highly residential city of Ogbomoso in Nigeria using PVGIS software. For the off-grid design, it is estimated that, given a total daily load of 9.57 kWh, a 3.5 kWp PV array size and a battery capacity of 86 kWh are enough to power the load with 5 days of autonomy and 70% depth of battery discharge. For the grid-connected PV system, the annual energy output for a building-integrated PV system is found to be around 4006 kWh; and a total of eight PV modules (each rated 250 Wp, 30.93 V) are stringed to arrive at the desired capacity of 2 kWp. In terms of performance, the performance ratio (PR) of a building integrated grid-tied PV system at the study location was found to be 71.2% while for a free-standing PV system, the PR was 75%.
- PV system design
- grid-connected PV system
- off-grid PV system
- performance ratio
- sustainable energy transition
How to Cite
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