Performance-Emission Analysis of a CI Engine Operating on D95 Diesel-n-Butanol Mixtures: An Experimental and Simulation Approach

Agboneni, O.

School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Adekunle, S. O.

Department of Mechatronics Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Ejilah, I. R. *

Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aims: This study aims to analyze the impact of diesel-n-butanol fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a 4-stroke diesel engine, with an emphasis on assessing the efficiency and emissions improvements of the D95 blend through experimentation and simulation procedures.

Study Design: Performance evaluation was conducted in compliance with SAE J1349 test standards, using a Tec-Quipment TD110-115 4-stroke engine running at 1500 rpm. The GT-Power simulation toolkit was also employed to analyze different loads, using the D95 diesel-n-butanol blend and conventional diesel fuel.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted over a span of 2 months at the Automotive Engineering Technology Workshop, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study followed the SAE J1349 test protocol, utilizing a D95 diesel-n-butanol blend and conventional diesel fuel. Engine setup, performance, and emissions were assessed through experimental procedures and GT-Power simulations. Despite its lower calorific value, the D95 blend exhibited performance comparable to that of diesel fuel.

Results: The combined findings from both experimental and simulation analyses provided insights into the effects of n-butanol-diesel blends on engine attributes, combustion, and emissions. However, simulated torque and brake power consistently exceeded experimental values as the engine load increased. While the D95 blend exhibited brake power comparable to that of diesel fuel, it also improved performance efficiency, fuel economy, and reduced emissions. Therefore, it is expected to promote sustainability and environmentally friendly fuel choices in the transportation sector.

Conclusion: The synergy of experimental and simulation results offers valuable insights into the effects of the diesel-n-butanol blend on engine performance, emissions, and fuel efficiency, while also improving the power output potential and providing sustainable fuel options.

Keywords: Diesel engine, D95 diesel-n-butanol blend, engine performance, fuel economy, emissions

How to Cite

Agboneni, O., Adekunle, S. O., and Ejilah, I. R. 2023. “Performance-Emission Analysis of a CI Engine Operating on D95 Diesel-N-Butanol Mixtures: An Experimental and Simulation Approach”. Journal of Energy Research and Reviews 15 (3):15-29.


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