Performance-Emission Analysis of a CI Engine Operating on D95 Diesel-n-Butanol Mixtures: An Experimental and Simulation Approach

Agboneni, O.

School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Adekunle, S. O.

Department of Mechatronics Engineering Technology, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Ejilah, I. R. *

Department of Mechanical/Production Engineering, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: This study aims to analyze the impact of diesel-n-butanol fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a 4-stroke diesel engine, with an emphasis on assessing the efficiency and emissions improvements of the D95 blend through experimentation and simulation procedures.

Study Design: Performance evaluation was conducted in compliance with SAE J1349 test standards, using a Tec-Quipment TD110-115 4-stroke engine running at 1500 rpm. The GT-Power simulation toolkit was also employed to analyze different loads, using the D95 diesel-n-butanol blend and conventional diesel fuel.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted over a span of 2 months at the Automotive Engineering Technology Workshop, Federal Polytechnic, Bauchi, Nigeria.

Methodology: The study followed the SAE J1349 test protocol, utilizing a D95 diesel-n-butanol blend and conventional diesel fuel. Engine setup, performance, and emissions were assessed through experimental procedures and GT-Power simulations. Despite its lower calorific value, the D95 blend exhibited performance comparable to that of diesel fuel.

Results: The combined findings from both experimental and simulation analyses provided insights into the effects of n-butanol-diesel blends on engine attributes, combustion, and emissions. However, simulated torque and brake power consistently exceeded experimental values as the engine load increased. While the D95 blend exhibited brake power comparable to that of diesel fuel, it also improved performance efficiency, fuel economy, and reduced emissions. Therefore, it is expected to promote sustainability and environmentally friendly fuel choices in the transportation sector.

Conclusion: The synergy of experimental and simulation results offers valuable insights into the effects of the diesel-n-butanol blend on engine performance, emissions, and fuel efficiency, while also improving the power output potential and providing sustainable fuel options.

Keywords: Diesel engine, D95 diesel-n-butanol blend, engine performance, fuel economy, emissions


How to Cite

Agboneni, O., Adekunle, S. O., and Ejilah, I. R. 2023. “Performance-Emission Analysis of a CI Engine Operating on D95 Diesel-N-Butanol Mixtures: An Experimental and Simulation Approach”. Journal of Energy Research and Reviews 15 (3):15-29. https://doi.org/10.9734/jenrr/2023/v15i3313.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Han X, Liu Z, Li X, Tian X, Zhang J, Wang Y. Combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel/n-butanol blend in a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine. Fuel. 2019;250:427-437.

Zhang R, Li H, Yao M, Zhang Y. Experimental study of combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol/diesel fuel blend in a diesel engine. Fuel. 2017;209:739-746.

Joy N, Yuvarajan D, Beemkumar N. Performance evaluation and emission characteristics of diesel ignition enhancer blend propelled in a research diesel engine. International Journal of Green Energy. 2019;16(4):277–83.

DOI:10.1080/15435075.2018.1561455

Lapuerta M, Armas O, Rodríguez-Fernández J. One global strategy to address the challenges posed by harmful emissions and the depletion of fossil fuels is the substitution of renewable fuels. Energy Conversion and Management. 2018;176:533-537.

Yuvarajan D, Venkata Ramanan M, Christopher Selvam D. Performance analysis on mustard oil methyl ester as a potential alternative fuel. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 2016;9(37). DOI: 10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i37/101982.

Appavu P. Effect of injection timing on performance and emission characteristics of palm biodiesel and diesel blends. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 2018;30:674–81. DOI:10.21894/jopr.2018.0057.

Aden A, Ruth M, Ibsen K, Jechura J, Neeves K, Sheehan J, Wallace B, Montague L, Slayton A, Lukas J. Lignocellulosic Biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis for corn stover. NREL/TP-510-32438. National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 2002.

Valentin L, Grumezescu AM. (Eds.). Butanol: Industrial applications, biotechnology, and future perspectives. Elsevier; 2015.

Osman M et al. Conversion of butanol isomers via guaiacol on platinum/gamma-alumina catalysts. Catalysis Today. 2016;278:242-248.

Tsyganenko AA et al. Study of the effects of the structure of 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and isobutanol on the efficiency of their extraction from dilute aqueous solutions by isobutylene. Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 2017;91(7):1395-1399.

Gao D et al. Selective Dehydrogenation of n-Butanol to Butyraldehyde over Copper-Based Catalysts. ACS Catalysis. 2018;8(3):2221-2231.

Hashemi MM et al. Estimation of volumetric properties for n-butanol + hydrocarbons binary mixtures using COSMO-SAC model. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 2019;64(2):867-879.

Lamani VT, Yadav AK, Kumar GN. Effect of exhaust gas recirculation rate on performance, emission and combustion characteristics of common rail diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol-diesel blends. Biofuel; 2017.

Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17597269. 1369631.

Tashiro Y, Shinto H, Hayashi M, Baba SI, Kobayashi G, Sonomoto K. Novel high-efficient butanol production from butyrate by non-growing clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum n1-4 (at 13564) with methyl viologen. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 2007;104(3):238—240.

Ahmed A et al. Butanol as an alternative fuel for CI engine: A comprehensive review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2015;51:1313- 1328.

Paykani A et al. Comparative study on the effect of diesel, n-butanol, and biodiesel fuels on combustion and emission characteristics in a DI diesel engine. Fuel. 2016;165:157-166.

Bari S. Performance, Combustion and emission analysis of diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol biodiesel blends. International Journal of Vehicle Structures and Systems. 2017;9(2):84-89.

Pirouzpanah V et al. Experimental investigation on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with n-butanol/diesel fuel blends. Fuel. 2018;233:205-215.

Jahanian O et al. Investigation of combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of a diesel engine using n-butanol-diesel blends. Energy & Fuels. 2019;33(8):7645-7656.

Kumar S, Cho JH, Park J, Moon I. Advances in diesel–alcohol blends and their effects on the performance and emissions of diesel engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 22, 46–72.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.01.017

Chen Z, Wu Z, Liu J, Lee C. Combustion and emissions characteristics of high n-butanol/diesel ratio blend in a heavy-duty diesel engine and EGR impact. Energy Conversion and Management. 2014;78:787-795.

Sendilvelan S, Rajan K. Effect of butanol-diesel blends in a compression ignition engine to reduce emission. Rasayan Journal of Chemistry (India). Computational Fluid Dynamics. 2017; 10(1):190-194.

Jamrozik A, Tutak W, Grab-Rogaliński K. Combustion stability, performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with diesel/n-butanol blends. Energies. 2021;14(10):2817.

Karagöz M. Investigation of performance and emission characteristics of an CI engine fuelled with diesel–waste tire oil–butanol blends. Fuel. 2020;282:118872.

Nayyar A, Sharma D, Soni SL, Mathur A. Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24:20315-20329.

Thakkar K, Kachhwaha SS, Kodgire P, Srinivasan S. Combustion investigation of ternary blend mixture of biodiesel/n-butanol/diesel: CI engine performance and emission control. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2021;137:110468.

Kumar N, Pali HS. Effects of n-butanol blending with Jatropha methyl esters on compression ignition engine. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 2016;41(11):4327-4336.

Tutak W, Jamrozik A, Grab-Rogaliński K. Evaluation of combustion stability and exhaust emissions of a stationary compression ignition engine powered by diesel/n-butanol and RME Biodiesel/n-Butanol Blends. Energies. 2023;16(4):1717.

Li J, Hong G, Luo L, An X. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel/n-butanol blends in a heavy-duty diesel engine: A CFD study. Energy Conversion and Management. 2019;186: 180-190

Sengupta A, Biswas S, Banerjee R. Performance-emission effect of n-butanol in reactivity controlled compression ignition regimes of biodiesel combustion. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects. 2023;45(4):11122-11141.

Zhang Z, Tian J, Li J, Lv J, Wang S, Zhong Y, Tan D. Investigation on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel/alcohol/n-butanol blended fuels. Fuel. 2022;320:123975.

Li J, Zhang Z, Ye Y, Li W, Yuan T, Wang H, Zhang C. Effects of different injection timing on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel/ethanol/n-butanol blended diesel engine based on multi-objective optimization theory. Energy. 2022;260:125056.

Zhang Z, Tian J, Xie G, Li J, Xu W, Jiang F, Tan D. Investigation on the combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel/methanol/n-butanol blends. Fuel . 2022;314:123088.

Solventis. N-Butanol Product. Online publication of Solventis, Compton House, The Guildway, Old Portsmouth Road, Guildford, Surrey, GU3 1LR, UK.21; 2022. Available:https://www.solventis.net/products/alcohols/n-butanol/.

NJDH. Right to Know: Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet. New Jersey, U.S.A; 2008. Available:http://www.nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb

SAE International. SAE J1349: Engine Power Test Code - Spark Ignition and Compression Ignition - Net Power Rating. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE); 2011.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ISO 8178: Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines - Exhaust Emission Measurement - Part 1: Test-bed Measurement of Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Emissions. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO; 2017.

ASTM International. (n.d.). ASTM D975-20: Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel. Available:https://www.astm.org/Standards/D975.htm

TQ. TD110-TD115 Test Bed and Instrumentation Manual for Small Engines,TQ Educational and Training Publishers, London. 2000;1-6.

GT-SUITE. GT-SUITE Engine Performance Tutorials VERSION 7.3. Gamma Technologies, Inc; 2012. Available:https://www.gtisoft.com/

Elfasakhany A. Experimental study of dual n-butanol and iso-butanol additive on SI Engine Performance and emissions. Fuel. 2016;163:166-174.

Grabys J. Influence of composition of gasoline-ethanol blend parameters of internal combustion engines, Journal of Kones, Internal Combustion Engines. 2012;10:3-4.

Kuszewski H. Physical and chemical properties of n-butanol–diesel fuel blends. Journal of Energy Fuels; 2018.

DOI: 10.1021/acs. Energy fuels.8b02912 Downloaded from Available:http://pubs.acs.org

Agarwal AK. Biofuels (alcohols and biodiesel) applications as fuels for internal combustion engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 2007;33:233–271.

Szwaja S, Naber JD. Combustion of n-butanol in a spark-ignition IC engine. Fuel. 2010;89(7): 1573-1582.

Singh P, Singh A. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable sources. Progress in Energy and Com- Bustion Science. 2011;37:52–68. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2010.01.003

Heywood JB. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1988.

Stone R. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. Macmillan International Higher Education; 2007

Ganesan V. Internal Combustion Engines. Tata McGraw-Hill Education; 1999.

Watson N, Janota M. Automotive Engine Valves. SAE International; 2002.

Ferguson CR, Kirkpatrick AT. Internal Combustion Engines: Applied Thermosciences. John Wiley & Sons; 2001.