Journal of Energy Research and Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Energy Research and Reviews (ISSN: 2581-8368)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JENRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas&nbsp;of energy generation, distribution, storage, management, production, conversion, conservation, systems, technologies and applications, and their impact on the environment and sustainable development. Articles related to the environmental, societal, and economic impacts of energy use and policy will also be considered.&nbsp;The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US Journal of Energy Research and Reviews 2581-8368 The Impact of Socio-economic Factors on the Perception towards Solar Energy <p>Solar Energy is an upcoming solution to one of the world’s biggest problems: The lack of clean energy. This research paper focuses on understanding the factors that influence the perception of Indian respondents toward solar energy, in order to fill in the gap in the data regarding how basic socio-economic factors such as age, education, and income level can influence one's thoughts towards solar energy. This is a mixed-method study that aims to draw relations and trends between the above-stated factors and the perceptions of the respondents. It was concluded after analyzing a dataset of 140 respondents(middle Class and upper-class respondents from Metropolitan cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, and Chennai, and Lower Class respondents from Kishangargh Village, New Delhi), from different income and education levels, that there was a positive relationship between education level and awareness as well as income and likelihood of adoption. Other factors such as age and gender of the respondents have also been taken into account in the study. The age of the respondents had a positive relationship with their perception of solar energy, Whereas gender showed no relation with the perception of the respondents.</p> Viraj Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 1 18 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i430283 Application of a Sludge Blanket Reactor for Effluent Treatment: A Laboratory Study <p>Energy is required in all societies worldwide. This led to a dependency of fossil fuel. During uncertain times fossil fuel supply become highly politically and used as an influencing source. This requires establishing a more environmentally friendly processes to decrease dependency. To produce biogas from municipal, agricultural and industrial waste a laboratory benchtop up-flow sludge blanket reactor with a operating volume of 2850 ml was designed build, started up, and operated using prepared municipal wastewater and separated liquid cow manure at a hydraulic retention time of 1 day, 3 days and 6 days after an 120 h adjustment time prior to testing.</p> <p>While using wastewater as influent, the laboratory benchtop up-flow sludge blanket reactor system was not able to reduce the chemical oxygen demand content significantly. Especially at a high volumetric flow rate for the 1-day hydraulic retention time. The produced gas amount decreased from 0.59&nbsp;±0.07&nbsp;(ml/h)/L at a hydraulic retention rate of 6 days to 0.042&nbsp;±0.04&nbsp;(ml/h)/L. The fluctuating influent chemical oxygen demand of 25&nbsp;±1&nbsp;mg/L to 74&nbsp;±15&nbsp;mg/L resulted in a stable effluent concentration of 39 ml/L and 45&nbsp;±11&nbsp;mg/L respectively.</p> <p>The laboratory benchtop up-flow sludge blanket reactor system with separated liquid cow manure showed a higher chemical oxygen demand degradation capability but resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand in the effluent. The influent chemical oxygen demand of 308&nbsp;±42&nbsp;mg/L was broken downs to 59&nbsp;±1&nbsp;mg/L at a hydraulic retention time of 6 days and to 114&nbsp;±5&nbsp;mg/L for 1 day retention time. The biogas production result in a stable gas production rate of 0.27&nbsp;±0.02&nbsp;(ml/h)/L through all three hydraulic retention times. For both the wastewater and separated liquid cow manure operation the biogas without carbon dioxide was between 55 and 65%.</p> <p>The results show that the laboratory benchtop up-flow sludge blanket reactor system can reduce high chemical oxygen demand in wastewater and separated liquid cow manure. However, a minimum feed level having a minimal chemical oxygen demand above 36 mg/L is needed, otherwise, the active bacterial mass contributes to the effluent level as seen for the influent level below 36 mg/L and 25 mg/L which resulted in a minimum effluent level of 39 mg/L for a hydraulic retention time of 3-days and 6-days.</p> Klaus Dölle Simon Lex ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 19 32 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i430284 Kariya Biodiesel Process Optimization Using Kariya Pod-husks Bio-catalyzed <p>In this study, biodiesel was produced from underutilized kariya oilseed using ethanol in the presence of kariya pod-husks bio-catalyst. The oil used was extracted through the soxhlet solvent extraction approach. Transesterification of kariya seed oil was investigated using Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response surface methodology. Process factors such as reaction temperature (65, 70, and 85<sup>o</sup>C), reaction time (2, 3, and 4 h), and ethanol/kariya oil molar ratio (8:1, 10:1, and 12:1) were modeled based on CCD experimental design. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced, and its blends with petrol-diesel were determined. The average yield of extracted kariya oil was 32.55 wt. %. Based on the results, biodiesel yield of 94.41 wt.% was obtained at optimal conditions; a temperature of 75<sup>o</sup>C, time of 2 h, and ethanol: oil mole ratio of 10:1 at catalyst loading of 5 wt.%. The physicochemical and fuel properties of produced biodiesel and its blend were well within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) standard and compared favorably with petrol-diesel.</p> O. E. Ogundahunsi B. S. Ogunsina E. F. Aransiola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 33 47 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i430285 Kariya Pod-husks: A Novel Biocatalyst in Biodiesel Production <p>Diverse challenges faced with the use of homogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production coupled with the interest in converting waste resources to useful products in solving occurring climatic and environmental challenges around the world have triggered research into the use of various heterogeneous catalysts. In this study, the catalytic properties of kariya pod-husks were investigated to examine their suitability in biodiesel production. Kariya pod-husks were ash and calcined at 600<sup>o</sup>C for 4 h. In the morphological structure examination, the scanning electron image of calcined kariya pod-husks shows that it has a more compact microstructure with a cluster of big crystals but irregular pores which is an attribute of high catalytic potentials. The elemental composition of the calcined kariya pod-husks reveals that it contains a higher percentage weight of calcium (42%) and potassium (31%) which makes it a more suitable catalyst for biodiesel production. The developed catalyst was further used in the production of kariya biodiesel. A biodiesel yield of 94% was obtained.&nbsp; This study shows that calcined kariya pod-husks could catalyze biodiesel production. It also helps in proving suitable biocatalyst to solve the challenges associated with the separation of catalyst from the product stream which consequently aids in the creation of continuous chemical processes.</p> O. E. Ogundahunsi B. S. Ogunsina E. F. Aransiola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 48 54 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i430286