Journal of Energy Research and Reviews https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Energy Research and Reviews (ISSN: 2581-8368)</strong>&nbsp; aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/JENRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas&nbsp;of energy generation, distribution, storage, management, production, conversion, conservation, systems, technologies and applications, and their impact on the environment and sustainable development. Articles related to the environmental, societal, and economic impacts of energy use and policy will also be considered. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US contact@journaljenrr.com (Journal of Energy Research and Reviews) contact@journaljenrr.com (Journal of Energy Research and Reviews) Tue, 25 Oct 2022 12:02:06 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Effects of Mono-Halogen-Substitution on the Electronic and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) for Solar Cell Applications: A DFT Approach https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/243 <p>Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) with the acronym P3HT and its derivatives are p-type conjugated&nbsp;semiconductor&nbsp;polymers that have been proved to be good organic semiconductors. They have several applications in many areas, such as photovoltaic systems, organic light-emitting diodes, and so on. The instability of organic molecules under ambient conditions is one factor deterring the commercialization of such organic semiconductor devices. Here we present a theoretical study using density functional theory (DFT) approach with Gaussian 09 and GaussView 5.0, to investigate the effects of halogens (Bromine, Chlorine, Fluorine and Iodine) on the electronic and nonlinear optical properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). This is to enable us to address the issue of instability in the molecule. The bond lengths and bond angles of the mono-halogenated molecules were found to be less than that of the isolated Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). Iodine doped P3HT was found to be the most stable amongst the studied molecule for having the least bond angles and bond lengths. The calculated band gap for iodine doped P3HT and fluorine doped P3HT were observed to have the lowest energy gap of 3.519 eV and 3.545 eV respectively thus proving that iodine doped P3H is the most stable and this makes it more suitable for photovoltaic applications. The molecule with the highest value of chemical hardness was obtained to be the isolated P3HT with a chemical hardness of 1.937eV. This is followed by bromine doped P3HT, chlorine doped P3HT, fluorine doped P3HT and iodine doped P3HT with values as 1.925 eV, 1.813 eV, 1.773 eV, and 1.7595 eV respectively. All the substituted molecules results were found to be more reactive than their isolated form for having lower values of chemical hardness. The results for the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties show that the&nbsp; first-order hyper-polarizability of chlorine doped P3HT and iodine doped P3HT as &nbsp;and &nbsp; respectively were found to be about eight times more than that of the urea value (0.3728 x10<sup>-30</sup> esu), which is commonly used for the comparison of NLO properties with other materials. This makes them very good NLO materials. The open circuit voltage &nbsp; was also calculated. The highest values of the calculated open circuit voltage &nbsp;were found to be&nbsp; &nbsp; (PCBM C<sub>60</sub>) in chloroP3HT and 1.3134 eV (PCBM C<sub>60</sub>) in flouroP3HT. The results of the IR frequency show that the doped molecules are more stable than the isolated molecule. Zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE), total entropy (S) and molar heat capacity (Cv) were also calculated and presented. We also observe that the entropy and heat capacity of the doped materials are higher than those of the original molecule, which confirms that the charge dynamics of the doped molecules are higher than those of the original molecule at the same temperature. This result further demonstrates that these doped materials have a high chemical reactivity and a high thermal resistivity, hence their application in the fields of organic electronics. By and large the overall results confirm that there is a good electron transfer within the doped molecules which makes them have potential applications in photovoltaic devices.</p> Abubakar Maigari, A. B. Suleiman, A. S. Gidado, Chifu E. Ndikilar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/243 Tue, 25 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Radiative Heat Transfer on Optically Thick Fluid Past an Oscillating Vertical Plate with Variable Temperature https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/244 <p>A theoretical study of radiation heat transfer with reference to an optically thick fluid past an oscillating vertical flat plate with variable temperature in the presence of convection and radiation has been presented.&nbsp; The fluid is considered to be a gray, absorbing-emitting radiation but non- scattering medium. The Rosseland flux approximation plays an important role in determining the effect of radiation heat transfer contribution. This problem is an improvement of Stoke’s first and second problem to justify the physical signifance on this problem. This problem is solved by employing Laplace transfrom method. Numerical results of velocity and temperature distributions are depicted graphically. Also, numerical results of frictional shearing stress and critical Grashof number are presented in tables.</p> S. K. Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/244 Wed, 02 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wind Energy Resource Utilization: A Review of Its Necessity, Interception Technology and Implementation Challenges https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/247 <p>The continuous use of non-renewable energy sources has caused a lot of harm to the earth’s atmosphere and humans. The need to increase the share of renewable energy in global energy usage has been strongly advocated internationally. In this work, wind energy was presented as a viable renewable energy option. Renewable energy with emphasis on wind energy, wind turbines and its types, the need for it to replace other injurious energy sources and the associated challenges hampering its deployment is a contribution toward the UN advocacy. The potential of wind energy and their technologies in terms of the turbine types: Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT) and Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWT) including their mix were reviewed. Looking at the pros and cons of both the HAWT and the VAWT, and those of Savonius and Darrieus, it is imperative to strike a balance using their combinations. Such a hybrid offers the benefit of harnessing the gains on either side of the divide.&nbsp; This is the reason attention is being devoted to research and development on combined VAWT in order to optimize the low starting torque of a Savonius with the high-performance coefficient of the Darrieus as the efficiency of VAWT increases when combined together with diverse modifications. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>With the volume of on-going research targeted at the implementation challenges and various design considerations and practices to solve the problems, it is certain that these impediments will be tackled technologically and policy wise and society will be on its way to better utilization of enormous wind energy resources via interception using wind turbines. The technical challenges on the pathway towards the smooth implementation of wind energy technologies were identified to include output fluctuations and intermittencies; and to which solutions were proffered to include the need for a technology to always align and realign the blade position in a way as to maximally interact with the current prevailing wind direction and another to reinforce the rotors rotational speed with an appropriate speed required to meet up the rated output. It was recommended that attention be devoted to research and development on the combined vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) in order to optimize the high starting torque of the Savonius turbine with the high-performance coefficient of the Darrieus turbine.</p> H. I. Ibrahim, A. G. Ibrahim, J. O. Eichie, Bori Ige ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/247 Sat, 05 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Designing and Manufacturing a Single-Phase Transformer and Analyzing Its Performance https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/246 <p><strong>Aims: </strong>This work aims to design a single-phase transformer for analyzing its performance based on some requirements.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong>&nbsp; At first, requirements are set, then the design was completed using AutoCAD, after that the designed machine was simulated in MATLAB Simulink, manufactured in real-time in the laboratory, tested experimentally, and then the equivalent circuit parameters were computed from the experimental data.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The design, manufacturing, simulation, and performance testing were conducted in the electrical machine 1 laboratory of American International University-Bangladesh (AIUB). It took around four months to complete the whole task.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> This work is a bit expensive and complicated process for students without any funds. So, a group was formed with eight students. The tasks were to design, simulate, implement, and test a single-phase transformer that would step down 220 V (ac) to 110 V (ac) having a 440 VA capacity, and core loss should not exceed 5 W.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> MATLAB Simulink was used to simulate the designed transformer to get the primary and secondary winding voltage and current wave shapes that were confirmed by the experimental results. Open and short circuit tests indicate that loss is only between 5 W and 8 W respectively. The total design cost is only BDTK1, 270.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results satisfied the design and performance parameter requirements and the designed transformer worked very well. The design cost was also kept minimum.</p> Eyasir Arafat, Md. Shihab Sharar Oyon, Md. Habib A Hasan Kabbyo, Khan Mohammad Khan, , Md. Shahriar Hasan Shuvo, Arnab Sarker, Md. Rokibul Haque, Rakibul Islam, Muhibul Haque Bhuyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://journaljenrr.com/index.php/JENRR/article/view/246 Thu, 03 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000