Open Access Short Research Article

Solar Energy as an Alternative for an All Year Round Production of Vegetables in Anambra, Nigeria

C. U. Ikeh

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v2i330079

Epileptic power supply is a major problem in Nigeria and one of the ways Nigerians have solving this challenge is by using renewable energy as an alternative power supply in place fossil fuels. Among renewable energy sources, solar is the most important because it is available in this part of the world. This energy source is also used in various industries including agriculture and it can be used in irrigation and sprinklers in farmer’s vegetable farm. This research was carried out through field visitations and extensive literature on the performance of photovoltaic modules. This paper outlines the use of solar water pump for irrigation in vegetable farms, the benefits and concludes with suggested recommendations which can help production of vegetables during dry season in Anambra State. It aims at contributing a better understanding of the potential impact of solar photovoltaic (PV) on sustainable production of vegetables with special attention to the effect of income generating activities in the State. It is known that during dry season, vegetables do not get enough water, sometimes these agricultural products are very scarce and expensive. Solar photovoltaic water pumping is found to be economically viable in comparison to electricity or diesel based systems for irrigation and sprinklers in the vegetable farm. Solar photovoltaic water pumping is therefore, an attractive alternative for irrigation and sprinklers in Nigerian vegetable farm due to the huge solar potential in the country.

Open Access Short Research Article

Environmental Kuznets Curve of Household Electricity Consumption in China: Based on Spatial Econometric Model

Caidan Tan

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v2i330080

In this paper, the spatial measurement model is introduced into the environmental Kuznets curve to investigate the impact of income on household electric carbon emissions. The spatial correlation diagnosis was made by using Moran scatterplot and Moran index. The results of spatial error model show that the environmental Kuznets curve of household electric carbon emissions is inverted N-shaped carve. The maximum and minimum values of environmental Kuznets curve are per capita real GDP of RMB 10198 Yuan and RMB 44355 Yuan (at constant price in 2005). It means that the per capita household electric carbon emissions are still on the rise in most provinces of China.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Oxygenated Additives with Diesel on the Performance of D I Diesel Engine

P. Venkateswara Rao, S. Ramesh, S. Anil Kumar

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v2i330076

The primary objective of this work is to reduce the particulate matter (PM) or smoke emission and oxides of nitrogen (NOx emissions) the two important harmful emissions and to increase the performance of diesel engine by using oxygenated additives with diesel as blend fuel. Formulation of available diesel fuel with additives is an advantage than considering of engine modification for improvement of higher output. From the available additives, three oxygenates are selected for experimentation by considering many aspects like cost, content of oxygen, flashpoint, solubility, seal etc. The selected oxygenates are Ethyl Aceto Acetate (EAA), Diethyl Carbonate (DEC), Diethylene Glycol (DEG). These oxygenates are blended with diesel fuel in proportions of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% by volume and experiments were conducted on a single cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. From the results the conclusion are higher brake power and lower BSFC obtained for DEC blends at 7.5% of additive as compared to EAA, DEG and diesel at full load. In case of DEC blends the smoke emission is lower, whereas NOx emissions are very low in case of EAA additive blend fuels. The DEC can be considered is the best oxygenating additive to be blend with diesel in a proportion of 7.5% by volume.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Electricity Service on Performance of Microenterprises of Rural Entrepreneurs in Ogun State, Nigeria

Emilola Cecilia Olanrewaju

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v2i330077

The expansion of microenterprises in rural areas is linked with the increase in access and use of electricity services, leading to changes income. However, there is little empirical evidence to underpin the mechanisms that lead from energy supply to profit generation among rural entrepreneurs. To this end, this study analyzed the impact of electricity service on performance of microenterprises of rural entrepreneurs. Primary data were used for this study. Data were collected using questionnaires from a sample of 150 rural entrepreneurs engaged in various microenterprise economic activities from Odeda Local Government Areas of Ogun State in a three-stage sampling procedure. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logit model and ordinary regression analysis. The result shows that hair dressing and retail shop were the most common form of businesses followed by grain milling, tailoring, welding, relaxation sports centre and cassava processing.  In addition, the result reveals that age, years of schooling, nature of business, monthly expenditure on alternative source of power and duration of power outage supported the microenterprise owner decisions to connect to grid electricity service. Also power outage duration and billing method negatively affected firms’ profitability. On other hand durations of power supply and expenditure on alternative power supply significantly has a positive impact on the profitability of microenterprise. The study therefore recommends that government should intensify action in providing rural communities with reliable and affordable electricity services.

Open Access Review Article

Performance Probability Distribution Function for Modelling Solar Radiation in South Southern Nigeria: A Case Study of Yenagoa

Chukwutem Isaac Abiodun, Obiora Emeka Anisiji

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v2i330078

This study has attempted to assess the performance of the most suitable statistical distribution function for modelling solar radiation over Yenagoa, Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The probability distribution functions are tested based on eleven years (2007-2017) solar radiation data obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Six probability distribution functions are tested to ascertain the most appropriate one based on four different statistical tools and fitting accuracy. The associated parameters of the most appropriate fitted probability distribution function are calculated and the trends in the characteristic of the solar radiation are deduced. The result shows that logistic distribution presents the most suitable probability distribution function for modelling solar radiation over the selected environment with RMSE of 1.500 KWh/m2/day, MAE of 1.260 KWh/m2/day, MAPE of 22.000% and R2 of 0.880.When compared with the other five distribution functions, the same trend could be seen although with different values of RMSE, MAE, MAPE and R2. The estimated distribution location and scale parameters of the model vary with month and season. The overall result will be useful for predicting future solar radiation over the studied environment. It will also be a good reference point for the design of large solar power projects in Yenagoa in particular and south southern Nigerian environments  at large.