Open Access Original Research Article

Kinetics Properties and Thermal Behavior of Pine Sawdust and Municipal Solid Waste

Arthur M. Omari, Baraka Kichonge, Zephania A. Chaula

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230091

Waste resulting from economic activities has been an integral part of every human society. Effective waste management is considered to be consistent with improved quality of life through removal of potential hazards of uncontrolled disposal. Recent years has witnessed a number of sustainable energy recovery technologies developed to divert solid waste destined for landfills. Waste management is a global problem and therefore development of energy recovery technologies and at the same time serving dual purpose in its reduction has become a priority in recent years. The present study reports kinetics properties and thermal behavior of pine sawdust and municipal solid waste (MSW) using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thus providing theoretical basis for development of energy recovery technologies. Results of this study have shown that the activation energy of both MSW and pine sawdust varies with temperature. The analysis of pine sawdust shows that it has activation energy (Ea) values of 26.19 kJ/mol., 87.46 kJ/mol. and 54.46 kJ/mol. At respective temperature ranges between 350 – 400K, 550 – 650K and 700 800K.  MSW has activation energy between 72.91 kJ/mol. and 139.1 kJ/mol. at temperature ranges between 700 – 900 K and 500 – 600 K respectively. The estimated value of pre-exponential factor for pine sawdust was determined to have the values of 2.46 x 104, 1.6 x 1010 and 5.32 x 1016 (s-1) with temperature ranges between 350 – 400 K, 550 – 650 K and 700 800 K respectively. Municipal solid waste has the values of 3.01 x 1012 and 7.31 x 103 (s-1) with a temperature range of 500 – 600 K and 700 – 900 K respectively. From these findings, it has been determined that MSW and pine sawdust available in Arusha and Kilimanjaro possess energy recovery potentials.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of External Parameters on the Dynamic Behavior of Resource-economic-pollution System

Jiuli Yin, Jing Huang, Xinghua Fan

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230092

This paper discusses a new type of selective-constrained resource-economic-pollution (REP) system. Based on the nonlinear dynamics theory, the dynamic behavior of the new system is discussed. The genetic algorithm is used to identify the quantitative coefficients of the actual system.
This paper further analyses the impact of state regulation, economic marketization management and green lifestyle on economic growth. Taking the actual situation into consideration in China, the empirical research is carried out by adjusting the parameters of the actual system. The dynamic evolution of real economic growth is observed which predicts future trends more realistically. The research shows that the introduction of state regulation into the REP system can promote economic growth quickly at a small rate in the short term. However, state regulation has little effect on economic growth in the long run. The impact of economic marketization management on the economy is moderate. A short-term, small-scale green lifestyle has little impact on system and economic growth because of China’s large population base.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Biomass Briquettes Using Coconut Husk and Male Inflorescence of Elaeis guineensis

O. J. Lawal, T. A. Atanda, S. O. Ayanleye, E. A. Iyiola

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230093

The decreasing availability of fuel wood coupled with the increasing prices of kerosene and cooking gas in Nigeria has drawn attention on the need to consider alternative sources of energy for domestic and industrial use in the country. The study was undertaken to evaluate the combustion properties (percentage volatile matter, percentage ash content, percentage fixed carbon, heating value) of briquette produced from coconut husk and male inflorescence of Elaeis guineensis. The experiment was laid down using the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The study involves three particle sizes (2 mm each) of coconut husk, male inflorescence of oil palm tree and cassava starch used as binder. The coconut husk and male inflorescence of Elaeis guineensis were varied into (25:30:40:50:60) respectively and bound together with starch at same ratio. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the constituent of the briquettes which include ash content, percentage fixed carbon, percentage volatile matter and experimental test to determine the heating value was also determined. All processing variables in this study were significantly different except for heating value at P>0.05. From the result of the percentage ash content, briquette produced from coconut husk, male inflorescence and starch at (20:20:60) has the least fixed carbon (6.5%) with better performance. The highest percentage volatile matter 74.6% was obtained from coconut husk, male inflorescence and starch at (20:20:60) while low fixed carbon (18.8%) was obtained from male inflorescence and starch at (60:40). In conclusion, large quantities of wastes generated in terms of coconut husk and male inflorescence which are disposed indiscriminately can be utilized to produce briquette with enhanced performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Efficiency “Example of Adana Yüreğir Wastewater Treatment Plant (Turkey)”

H. H. Şahin, B. Yelmen

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230094

The purpose of this study is to analyze the design and operating parameters for Yuregir Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Adana Metropolitan municipality and to make a comparison of the economic analysis system. The data of Yuregir WWTP regarding the amount of treated wastewater (m3/month-1), the amount of produced gas (m3 month-1), the energy withdrawn from the grid (kWh month-1), and the electricity generated from the generator (kWh/month) were obtained for the year 2017. With such data, the relations of the amount of treated wastewater and energy, the amount of produced gas and energy, and the energy generated and drawn from the grid were examined. It was observed that the average amount of wastewater treated and produced gas at the facility were 2 517 831 m3 month-1 and 134 596  m3 month-1 while the generation of electricity from the generator and energy recovery as energy efficiency were 317 166 kWh/month and 49,72%, respectively. Based upon the calculations made, it was observed that the energy consumption unit was reduced when the organic loading removal was increased at the Yüregir WWTP.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biohydrolysis of Banana and Plantain Peels for the Production of Biofuel

F. I. Jumare, A. M. Magashi, A. B. Rabah, A. M. Sokoto, M. U. Hizbullahi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i230095

This study was carried out to assess the potentials of banana and plantain peel as feedstock for biofuel production. Fungi were isolated from spoiled banana, burkutu and spoiled bread using the standard microbiological method. The concentration of reducing sugar of the peels were measured using DNS calorimetry method and biofuel were measured using chromium (VI) reagent by Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometer. Aspergillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Mucor racemusus were isolated. A reducing sugar concentration of 59.12 mg/g and 56.62 mg/g was observed for the banana and plantain peels. The highest concentration was found to be 0.35 mg/L for banana peels and 0.10 mg/L for plantain. The IR characterization of the banana and plantain sample revealed an intense strong broad band of alcohol O-H and alkane C-H stretching. The GC-MS result revealed the presence of benzaldehyde in all the biomass while 2,3-butanediol was only detected in the plantain peels biomass. This study showed the potential of banana and plantain peels biomass for biofuel production.