Open Access Original Research Article

Modelling Carbon Emissions Efficiency from UK Higher Education Institutions Using Data Envelopment Analysis

Adefarati Oloruntoba, Japhet Tomiwa Oladipo

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i330097

Aims: To correlate the energy and carbon emission efficiency relative to research income, gross internal area, and population for all the Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the UK and to assess the comparative carbon emission efficiency of HEIs relative to economic metrics.

Study Design:  Analytical panel data study.

Place and Duration of Study: This paper evaluates the energy efficiency of 131 HEIs in the UK subdivided into Russell and non-Russell groups from 2008 to 2015.

Methodology: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Malmquist productivity indexes (MPI) are used for the efficiency calculations.

Results: The empirical results indicate that UK HEIs have relatively high energy efficiency scores of 96.9% and 77.6% (CRS) and 98.5%, 86.3% (VRS) for Russell and non-Russell groups respectively.

Conclusion: The evidence from this study reveals that HEIs are not significantly suffering from scale effects, hence, an increase in energy efficiency of these institutions is feasible with the present operating scale but would need to work on their technical improvements in energy use. Malmquist index analysis confirms the lack of substantial technological innovation, which impedes their energy efficiency and productivity gain. Findings show that pure technical efficiency accounts for the annual efficiency obtained in the DEA model, the technological progress in contrast is the source of their energy inefficiency.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Stand-alone Solar-Wind-Hydro Based Hybrid Power System: Case of Rural Village in Malawi

Sylvester W. Chisale, Zaki Sari

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i330098

Malawi has current electrification rate of less than 10% for a population of 18 million connected to the grid. The electricity generation company in Malawi (EGENCO) is greatly affected by low water levels making it difficult to satisfy the existing demand of electricity. This makes it difficult for Malawi to extend its National electricity grid. Thus, the aim of the study is to design stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system which is economically and technically feasible with focus on hydropower, wind, solar and battery bank within Dwangwa area. The study area is estimated to have 420 households, commercial and public service load with primary load demand of 5,556.31 kWh/day and peak load of 302.93 kW. River discharge data were collected from ministry of irrigation and water development while solar and wind data were collected from NASA. HOMER modeling tool was used to design a stand-alone system. From simulation results, the best design flow for Dwangwa river is 159 L/s at elevation of 100 metres and the best hybrid system combination was hydropower-wind-solar-battery and converter. The whole hybrid system initial capital cost was $2,662,638 while Net present cost (NPC) and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) were $3,597,197 and $0.134/kWh respectively. However, the cost of electricity in Malawi on the grid is K88.02/kWh ($0.11/kWh) which makes the system expensive. Therefore, the study has shown that the hybrid system is not economically viable. However, Government intervention can help to make the system monetarily acceptable and viable.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Circular Light Bulb Economy: Framework for Sustainable End-of-life Management of Modern Light Bulb

S. Selvam, Shivinder Singh Chandok, Harsh Singh

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i330099

This paper presents a framework that focuses on transitioning from a linear light bulb economy to a circular light bulb economy by developing a closed-loop system of reuse. The conceptual framework is based on a pilot study conducted in India and strengthened by a comprehensive review and analysis of relevant literature. Accordingly, the proposed paradigms are a result of best practices identified during the pilot study. The results demonstrate the financial viability of the pilot study conducted over a period of three years. Additionally, the results provide evidence of the impact of the circular economy on economic growth, employment opportunity, and reduction in environmental waste. The discussion also identifies the barriers to the adoption of a circular economy framework including the role of attitude towards the environment and the skill gap in labor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Thermodynamic Parameters on the Concentration of Pollutants in Produced Water from Crude Oil Production

Stanley Ngene, Kiran Tota-Maharaj

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i330101

Thermodynamic parameters such as temperature and pressure of petroleum reservoirs are among the most important physical characteristics which are required to effectively produce crude oil from the reservoirs. Oil and gas reservoir pressures determines if external energy is required to force well fluids out of the reservoir; the temperature of the reservoir determines the flow characteristics of the produced fluid through the tubing and along the flowline by its influence on the viscosity of the fluid. The produced fluid is made up of produced water, crude oil and natural gas. Produced water contains several substances which at certain concentrations could pose health threats to living organism in the environment. Local regulatory authorities do not allow discharge of produced water to the environment except the prescribed limits for selected pollutants contained in the produced water are not exceeded. This has led to post-production treatment of produced water in most crude oil production facility in order to meet these limits. This treatment increases the cost of production of crude oil thereby reducing the profitability of crude oil production process. It is believed that thermodynamic parameters such as temperature and pressure are capable of either decomposing or altering the structure of some pollutants thereby reducing their concentration in the produced water at the end of the production process. This research has employed an environmental process engineering simulator (Aspen HYSYS) to determine which thermodynamic variables of temperature and pressure could be altered in combination to reduce the concentration of pollutants in produced water to meet the regulatory limits prior to discharge.

Open Access Review Article

Biofuel Development in Nigeria Production and Policy Challenges

Adefarati Oloruntoba, Paul Kazeem Adekanye

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-21
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i330100

Exploring renewable energy resources stimulates social and clean economic development. The global renewable share in the total primary energy supply is steadily increasing but some countries are not actively contributing to this growth. The current Nigeria dependence on depleting fossil-based fuels can only be changed through a balanced and long-term renewable energy policy that is built on a step by step accomplishment basis. Biofuel remains the sustainable and promising option for Nigeria due to a large biomass reserve of 144 million tons per year. Although, biofuels have been identified as the real deal in increasing energy access, productivity, income, employment generation and also in combating carbon emissions which would invariably check the worst effects of climate change, the existing policies engineered to drive biofuel development are weak resulting into the failure to meeting the national targets; a 10% ethanol blending policy target between 2007-2016, 100% domestic biofuels production target by 2020 and 2000MW of electricity from renewables by the year 2020. Besides the uneven policies menace, lack of incentive, poor energy infrastructure, low cultivation of biomass and yields and non-attractive biofuel market price have been the major obstacles for biofuel development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, active participation of private and public institutions will birth a more realistic policy and a sustainable biofuel production, distribution, market and application in the country.