Open Access Short Research Article

Feasibility Study for a Biogas Plant in Jordan

Zainab Alhammad

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430104

This research was conducted to estimate the economic feasibility of establishing biogas plant from dairy farms manure in Al-Dlail district (Zarqa governorate). Biogas is a mixture of gas consisting of 50-70% of methane and carbon dioxide 30-45%, and other gases and water that resulted from the digestion of the biomass process with the absence of oxygen. It is used as a fuel source in many countries for the purposes of lighting and cooking. Biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that can be sustainable solutions of large organic waste produced in animal farms and reduces the harmful environmental pollution. Also, it can be an opportunity to invest and make profits. Data for this research was collected by desk research, survey and interviews. The respondents were 31 dairy farmers; the interview included the Jordan Biogas plant manager, owners of manure plants, heads of cattle breeders associations and stakeholders in government organization. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS, 5P's analysis, PESTEC Analysis and Canvas model to come up with a clear picture about the feasibility of biogas utilization in Zarqa governorate. The study showed the tremendous environmental pollution that happened in Al-Dlail and Al-Khaldiah areas due to the poor management of cattle farms manure, causing air, soil ground and surface water pollution. As a solution to this problem, the study showed that the most appropriate solution to this problem is to exploit these manure in the production of energy from biogas as a sustainable, and environment-friendly project. The research also included the size of the feedstock of the manure produced from cattle farms, the availability of the necessary technology to build a project of this plant, the availability of markets for its products and the legislative framework governing the renewable energy projects represented by the Ministry of Energy. The study concluded that it is possible to establish a medium-sized biogas plant. The recommendation is to facilitate government procedures for investors in renewable energy and the promotion of environmental awareness between farmers and pay more attention to the management of livestock waste by creation waste management departments in government institutions.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Brief Study of an Installation of a Rooftop Solar PV System in India

Karthik Sivaraman, Aniket Rawool

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430111

Solar rooftop photovoltaic installation is one of the most popular setups used in the country of India, being economical and apt for the space available in the country. This paper focuses on the key aspects of the design involved in the setup of the system, regarding not just the engineering design for a PV system, but also other key components such as installation site evaluation of a given rooftop to the final cost analysis. Hence, the discussion in the paper will give the average understanding of how a rooftop photovoltaic system is processed through in this country from an engineer’s point of view.

Open Access Minireview Article

Virtual Synchronous Machines: The Future of Grid Integration

S. Selvam, Harsh Singh, Shivinder Singh Chandok

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430114

This paper is aimed to present an insight into the challenges that the power transmission infrastructure faces in terms of stability and operability due to integration of renewable energy on a large scale. Furthermore, the available mitigation strategies are discussed and various stability measures are discussed in detail with reference to the published papers to list out a comprehensive analysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Energy Use in Major Agro-processing Industries in Nigeria

Hammed Adeniyi Salami

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430102

A comparative assessment of environmental impacts associated with the use of energy in palm kernel oil production and cashew nut processing industries was carried out using life cycle assessment. One Kg of products from both industries was chosen as the functional unit. The gate – to – gate life cycle assessment results indicated that the total contribution per functional unit to global warming potential (GWP), abiotic depletion potential (ADP) and acidification potential (AP) were 50.2809 g of CO2 equivalents, 0.1524 g antimony equivalents and 0.1280 g of SO2 equivalents respectively for palm kernel oil production and 39.8350 g of CO2 equivalents, 0.1209 g antimony equivalents and 0.0957 g of SO2 equivalents respectively for cashew nut processing. The scenario-based results indicated substantial reductions for all the considered impact categories; approximately 18, 28 and 94% reductions were achieved for ADP, GWP and AP respectively for both industries when public power supply from the natural grid was the main energy source for agricultural production. Increasing the thermal efficiency of the nation’s existing power architecture resulted into 62 and 56% reductions for GWP and ADP respectively for the two industries, while additional 6 and 7% reductions were achieved for both impact categories when the transmission and distribution loss was maintained at 5%. The widespread adoption of clean and renewable energy sources, instead of over-reliance on electricity supply from diesel-powered generator, has been identified as a feasible alternative towards achieving sustainability in the agro-processing industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design and Performance Evaluation of Energy Efficient Biomass Gasifier Cook Stove Using Multi Fuels

Isaac F. Odesola, Ebenezer O. Ige, Idris O. Yunus

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430103

Since the beginning of civilization, cooking has been done by using biomass as fuel. They are used in stoves which cause wastage of fuel and also health problems. Thus, there is the need to analyze the thermal performance of a developed cook stove that operates on multifuel conditions. The stove was designed to work on sawdust, wood, groundnut and charcoal as the primary fuel. Prior to fabrication, design parameters were obtained using the appropriate governing equations. Inputs were further made to simplify the construction of the stove and to minimize heat loss to the surroundings. A thermal efficiency of 32.18%, 80.10%, 38.73% and 50.33% was achieved when the stove was fuelled with charcoal, sawdust, wood and groundnut husk respectively. The highest flame temperature was recorded as 205ºC when wood was used as fuel. The highest stove body temperature recorded was 56ºC. Wood took the shortest time (20 mins) to boil water compared to sawdust, charcoal and groundnut husk which took 29, 23 and 27 minutes respectively for 2 kg of water. The developed cook stove was found to be energy efficient for domestic cooking especially in the rural communities of Nigeria.  Although it has the potential to save fuel, further research could be carried out in the aspect of removing CO emission.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Real Options Model to Value Offshore Wind Power Project under Market Linkage Mechanism

Yiqing Li, Weiguo Yang, Lixin Tian

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430105

This study puts forward a real options model and uses it to evaluate the investment value of offshore wind power project under market co-movement effect. The main purpose is to check investment benefit of offshore wind power project, as an investor. Several uncertainties are taken into account, including investment costs, feed-in tariffs, carbon prices and policy subsidy. Moreover, an additional uncertain factor, i.e. the market linkage of investment costs, is considered. As a case study, Jiangsu Xiangshui offshore wind park is used to illustrate the model in scenario analysis. Using a least-squares Monte Carlo simulation method, we obtain that the project value is negative. Therefore investors should abandon or postpone investment until better conditions prevail. Furthermore, this paper shows sensitivity analysis of the impact of uncertain factors on the project value. Especially sensitivity analysis of variable costs, it shows a certain impact on project value in here, which has been ignored in previous real options studies. The research results would be helpful for renewable energy project assessment and the decision-making process associated with it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Local Content Implementation Enhancement through Infrastructure Development in Ghana’s Oil and Gas Industry

Kwadwo Ayeh Obiri, Bassam Bjeirmi, Prince Boateng

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430106

Since the discovery of oil and gas (O&G) in commercial quantities in 2007, Ghana has made some progress in passing several policies such as Local Content and Participation Framework, ostensibly to stem the effects of resource curse – connotes countries with more natural resources turned to be undeveloped than countries without natural resources. Put it differently, the country’s local content is meant to stimulate industry development by indigenizing the needs of the petroleum industry. However, the above aim is constrained by the country’s infrastructure deficit of about US$ 2.5 billion annually needed to provide the enabling environment for the growth of indigenous companies. The study, therefore, is to propose policy options for enhancing local content implementation through infrastructure development. To that end, the policy implementation in Angola, Brazil and Norway is reviewed, and the research participants are purposively sampled and interviewed. Consequently, the study found that the regulatory institutions and legal framework should be strengthened to attract private investment in infrastructure development. In addition, a special provision should be inserted in future petroleum contracts to support the Infrastructure Fund; through infrastructure-for-oil trade; and encouraging voluntary contribution from oil companies in exchange for reduced taxes into the Infrastructure Fund. The findings contribute to the existing literature in local content development by moving the discussion from training, local employment and goods and services targets to developing host country’s local infrastructure for sustainable development of indigenous and foreign businesses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Successes and Challenges of Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves Adoption along the Product Value Chain in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania

Fatihiya A. Massawe

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430109

The aim of this study was to assess the adoption of ICS along the value chain. The existing studies have focused much on measuring adoption based on the user’s installation or purchase of the ICS and few have gone to the level of assessing other aspects along the ICS value chain. The argument of this paper is that adoption is a multidimensional concept that goes beyond the initial acquisition of the stove to the sustained use of the same. Using a cross-sectional study design data were collected from 294 households in two Districts of Kilimanjaro regions and were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The findings show that at the lower levels of value chain i.e. promotion and distributions the efforts have been somehow successful since people are aware of ICS benefits and negative effects of using traditional fuels and stoves. In addition, various stove distributors and technicians are in place. On the other hand, the uptake is limited since only 26% of all households had ICS in place of which only 22.1% had functional stoves. The intensity of ICS use is very limited and households have not integrated the stove into household cooking behavior. The study concludes that the stoves program implementers have adopted a disintegrated approach that disconnects various levels of the value chain. The efforts are much concentrated at lowers levels with limited interventions to address challenges limiting uptake, the intensity of use and sustained adoption. The study recommends that a holistic and integrated approach that will facilitate ICS adoption along the value chain should be adopted. This approach will facilitate forward and backward communications on challenges facing each level of the value chain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of Gaps and Remedies for Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation System in North-West Ethiopia

Kasa MekonenTiku, Pratap Singh

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430110

The study was carried out to study on identification of performance gaps for improvement of center pivot sprinkler system in the Tigray region of Northwest Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify center pivot sprinkler irrigation system gaps and suggest remedial measures for improvement of the center pivot sprinkler irrigation system. The methods used for gap Identification were observation, Interview, measurement, and using design document. Center pivot sprinkler gaps identification study revealed that Excess runoff due to leaky boots and higher application depth, absence of regular checkup for emitting devices, and improper scheduling were dominant gaps and Making functional an Automatic control system, regular checkup and maintenance of emitting accessories and proper scheduling could minimize the identified problems and finally the irrigation efficiency would be amended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Substrate to Inoculum Ration on Biogas Production from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Office Paper and Cow Manure

Autumn R. Elniski, Siddharth G. Chatterjee, Chanchal Mondal, Klaus Doelle

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430112

Anaerobic digestion can utilize renewable resources to produce energy in the form of biogas. Cow manure inoculum contains the microorganisms needed for this application and unrecycled paper waste can be used as a substrate. The use of these feedstocks together is not well studied. Finding ideal operating parameters and modelling biogas production is vital for future integration of anaerobic digestion. The use of various models when examining anaerobic digestion is important to ensure the best models are used for future research and industrial applications. Office paper and cow manure were combined at the different substrate to inoculum ratios with a total solids content of 6% at 38.4°C for 15 days. Four models (Time-Lag, No-Lag, Modified Gompertz, and Modified Logistic) were fitted to the experimental data to find which model best represented each biogas production process. Models varied in the accuracy of their fit to the data and no single model had the lowest RMSE values for each treatment. The digester containing a paper to manure ratio of 2:1 produced the most biogas (82 mL biogas/g VS), but the 5:1 reactor had the greatest biogas production potential over a longer period based on the model parameters (maximum cumulative biogas yield and biogas production potential). More biogas was produced in this study compared to other works reported in the literature, showing that this combination of co-digestion substrates could be expanded upon in the future. New models need to be examined or developed for these systems to better represent this co-digestion process for future research and commercial applications.

Open Access Review Article

A Prospective Assessment of Biomass Energy Resources: Potential, Technologies and Challenges in Bangladesh

Md. Tahmid Farhan Himel, Sharmin Khatun, Minhazur Rahman, Ahnaf Tahmid Nahian

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430108

Olden energy system only operated well when energy fuel was inexpensive and lavishly accessible, but absolutely does not produce affluence if the energy fuel becomes costly and scare. Bangladesh is passing by a cross road in its effort to struggle the present energy crisis and future energy need. Bangladesh has struggled in finding new energy sources for a long time. The extensive dependence on limited coal and gas has put the country under tremendous pressure. It is projected that with the rapid increase in population and industrialization the demand of energy will be doubled in 2050. Geologically it is impossible to connect by the grid line to the rivers, canals, island based off-grid area. Renewable resources has opened new door with ample opportunities for those off-grid areas by generating grid quality electricity. For thousands of years biomass has been overwhelming as associate degree energy supply by men. To ensure the optimal utilization there is the need to assess the existing biomass potential, technologies and challenges. The assessment is conducted by analyzing the accessible data from diverse consistent sources through the procedure of exact qualitative and quantitative to authenticate the results. This assessment evaluates the biomass energy potentiality which includes agricultural residues, forestry residues, animal dung, solid waste from municipalities, and the consumption pattern of biomass, practicing technologies, and challenges in Bangladesh. The assessed entire quantity of biomass source offered for energy in Bangladesh in 2017-2018 is 94.16 (million tons) with yearly energy potentiality of 47 (million tons) of coal equal. In 2017-2018, the retrievable quantity of biomass is 94.16 (million tons) which has associate energy potentiality of 1378 (PJ) that is comparable to 383 (TWh) of electricity.

Open Access Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Status of Solar PV Growth in Uganda

Reuben Gad Mugagga, Hope Baxter Nqcube Chamdimba

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2019/v3i430113

Uganda is faced with a challenge of huge energy deficit just like many other developing countries in Africa. Currently, only 26.7% of the total population has access to electricity. Energy being the life – blood of any growing economy, subsequent endeavors and strategies need to be put in place in order to expand the use of renewable energies for socio-economic development and environmental sustainability. Uganda being endowed with plenty of solar energy resource, its role in achieving national ambitions of Sustainable Energy for All (SE4All) cannot be underestimated. This paper therefore reviews the growth of Solar Photovoltaics (PV) in Uganda that was birthed in the 1980’s and continues to mature steadily today contributing 4.24%(50MW) to the national grid with several un documented off – grid systems. This progress has been realized under different market segments inclusive of the pico and macro solar home systems, Institutional PV, mini-grids, telecommunications and street lighting. Notwithstanding the prevalent challenges, there are numerous existing opportunities for solar PV development consisting of the financial, environmental, Institutional and the socio-economic factors. With more government and different stakeholder engagement however, this growth in the country could be accelerated further as the costs of the technology continue to plummet.