Open Access Original Research Article

Household Biomass Fuel Consumption Pattern in Rural Areas of Bangladesh

Rajasree Nandi, Mahey Nusrat

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i130115

Biomass fuels contribute to the largest share of the energy uses in Bangladesh.  The present study determines the household biomass fuel consumption pattern in the rural areas of Titas Upazila under Comilla district in Bangladesh using the stratified random sampling technique through semi-structured questionnaires. Data were collected from 84 households under three household land categories – poor (land area <0.10 acre), middle (land area 0.10-0.25acre) and well-off household (land area >0.25 acre). Households were found to depend largely on biomass fuel including firewood, branches, leaves and twigs, bamboo, agricultural residue (rice husk, rice straw) and cow dung mainly for cooking. Firewood was the dominant biomass fuel for well-off and middle households (28% and 25%) and branches of the tree were dominant fuel for poor households (24%). More than 40% well-off households collect major amount of fuelwood from their own homestead forests while 32% middle and 37% poor households collect tree biomass from agricultural lands. Villagers preferred mostly Albizia procera, Mangifera indica, Cocos nucifera, Tamarindus indica as fuelwood tree species. Households across three categories (poor, middle, well-off) spend 19%, 12% and 11% of their total income for buying biomass fuels, respectively. All of the three households used a traditional wood-burning oven. Among them 39% well-off households and 18% middle households used LPG. Decreasing forest resources impose threats on the availability of biomass fuels. About 70% of households think that fuelwood was a scarce resource because of the degradation of homestead forest and fuelwood production unsustainability. Villagers suggested for alternative fuel items to decrease the pressure on biomass fuel energy sources. They also prescribed inclusion of fast-growing tree species into plantation program at the homestead level. Moreover, they demanded their involvement in this plantation program. The outcome of this study might be helpful to formulate policies to meet future challenges in fuel consumption and their sustainable utilization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Techno-Economic Analysis of a Hybrid Mini-grid in Rural Areas: A Case Study of Bangladesh

Tausif Ali, Hongzhong Ma, Ahmed Jaudat Nahian

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 10-29
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i130116

A techno-economic analysis of a hybrid PV-Diesel mini-grid system in rural Bangladesh is presented in this study. The case-study is done using data from Patar Char village in Patuakhali district of Bangladesh, considering non-electrified households. HOMER simulation compares three system designs: Hybrid PV-Diesel-Battery, PV-Battery, and Diesel-Battery. Hybrid PV-Diesel-Battery system yielded optimum results in terms of the lower cost of energy (COE) of around USD 0.182/kWh. Overall carbon emission of this system is around 307 kg/year, which is lower than the Diesel-Battery system, but higher than PV-Battery system. A sensitivity analysis of PV-Diesel-Battery system is performed, by considering and varying some of the indicators to prove system sustainability and feasibility. The impact of price variability in diesel price, discount rate on COE, and total net present cost (TNPC) showed that PV-Diesel-Battery system is the most feasible option. Finally, a SWOT analysis is also presented to address participatory planning strategy of developing the hybrid energy system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Indigenous Knowledge and Fuel Value Index of Some Selected Sudano-Sahelian Fuelwood Species in Damaturu, Yobe State of Nigeria

A. M. Dadile, O. A. Sotannde

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 30-38
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i130117

Fuelwood utilization in the sudano- sahelian region requires massive felling of tree species which in turn resulted to deforestation and sand dunce couple with scarce vegetation in the region. Moreover, fuelwood is not only used for domestic and commercial purposes but for livelihood sustenance. This increases the demand and intensity for fuelwood through indiscriminate felling of trees species for energy use, with a trend that does not appear to have the possibility of meeting the increasing demand in the future.  The study aimed to evaluate the indigenous knowledge and fuel value index (FVI) of ten selected sudano-sahelian fuelwood species and the results revealed a significant relationship between the indigenous knowledge and Fuel value index (FVI) of the ten selected fuelwood species. Higher FVI of 13.56MJ/m3 % 2 was obtained in A. leiocarpus followed by 6.61 MJ/m3 % 2 and 6.53MJ/m3 % 2 obtained in B. aegyptiaca and C. arereh meanwhile, lower energy fuelwood ranged from  0.11MJ/m3% 2 obtained in C. lamprocarpum. to 0 85MJ/m3% 2,   in  S. birrea respectively. Meanwhile, A. leiocarpus, C. arereh, C. molle, and B. aegyptiaca were the most preferred and possessed good fuel quality. The indigenous knowledge might not be solely based on their fuel properties but availability and other possible reasons. Therefore, those fuelwood species identified with higher energy value can be incorporated in to fuelwood plantation establishment programs and those with lower energy value fuelwood should be allowed for environmental restoration and amelioration.

Open Access Original Research Article

A System Thinking Approach to Human Resource Development in the Oil Industry

Kwadwo Ayeh Obiri, Bassam Bjeirmi, Prince Boateng

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 39-49
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i130118

Prerequisite for the development of production linkages in the oil and gas (O&G) industry is the existence of a skilled and experienced workforce. Resource-rich countries, however, are either in short supply or lack of the requisite local capacity. This paper adopts system thinking (ST) methodology to provide a comprehensive approach in identifying, analysing and understanding the interconnections and interrelationship among the variables affecting the challenge of human resource development (HRD) in the oil industry. The concept of feedback embedded in ST allows complex issues to be viewed as an interconnected set of circular relationship rather than the linear cause-and-effect. Consequently, ST tool of causal loop diagram (CLD) aids in visualising the understanding of HRD factors, their relationships in the causal factors and the strategies for sustainable development of domestic skills, know-how and local capacity. Policies for developing human resource in the oil and gas industry are recommended to policymakers and stakeholders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of the Performance of Hybrid Solar Biomass Dryer for Drying Maize Using ANSYS Workbench

Jackis Aukah, Mutuku Muvengei, Hiram Ndiritu, Calvin Onyango

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 50-69
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i130119

In this paper ANSYS workbench was used to optimize the performance of hybrid solar biomass dryer for drying shelled maize in order to find the optimal operating input variables when the air temperature within the drying chamber set within the permissible range at reasonably high flow velocity. Hybrid Solar dryer with biomass as a source of fuel for auxiliary heating during absence or low solar insolation is a feasible option for small scale maize farmers [1]. At times high temperatures are induced in this dryer which may result in grain fissures and breakage during milling, thus reducing the grain quality. Optimization results indicate that in order to keep the air temperature within drying chamber to permissible range [2], the air velocity at collector inlet and biomass heat exchanger outlet should be improved to 3 m/s and 2.8 m/s respectively while the capacity of the biomass heat exchanger should also be enhanced to provide hot air at 85°C. It be concluded from the study that HSBD is suitable for drying maize as well as other agricultural products since continuous interrupted drying can be achieved. The capability of the dryer to maintain uniform temperature and air flow within the drying chamber enable high quality dried products within a short duration.