Open Access Original Research Article

Production of Fuel Oil from Municipal Plastic Wastes Using Thermal and Catalytic Pyrolysis

Dan Kica Omol, Ongwech Acaye, David Fred Okot, Ocident Bongomin

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i230120

Plastics have become an essential part of modern life today. The global production of plastics has gone up to 299 million tonnes in 2013, which has increased enormously in the present years. The utilization of plastics and its final disposal pose tremendous negative significant impacts on the environment. The present study aimed to investigate the thermal and catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuel oil from the polyethene plastic wastes. The samples collection for both plastic wastes and clay catalyst, sample preparation and pyrolysis experiment for oil production was done in Laroo Division, Gulu Municipality, Northern Uganda Region, Uganda. Catalysts used in the experiment were acid-activated clay mineral and aluminium chlorides on activated carbon. The clay mineral was activated by refluxing it with 6M Sulphuric acid for 3 hours. The experiment was conducted in three different phases: The first phase of the experiment was done without a catalyst (purely thermal pyrolysis). The second phase involves the use of acid-activated clay mineral. The third phase was done using aluminium chlorides on activated carbon. Both phases were done at different heating rates. In purely thermal pyrolysis, 88 mL of oil was obtained at a maximum temperature of 39ºC and heating rates of 12.55ºC /minute and reaction time of 4 hours. Acid activated clay mineral yielded 100 mL of oil with the heating rates of 12.55ºC/minute and reaction time of 3 hours 30 minutes. While aluminium chlorides on activated carbon produced 105 mL of oil at a maximum temperature of 400ºC and heating rates of 15.5ºC /minute and reaction time of 3 hours 10 minutes. From the experimental results, catalytic pyrolysis is more efficient than purely thermal pyrolysis and homogenous catalysis (aluminium chlorides) shows a better result than solid acid catalyst (activated clay minerals) hence saving the energy needed for pyrolysis and making the process more economically feasible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Solar Park: The Next Generation Energy Source in Bangladesh

Zafrin Ahmed Liza, Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 9-19
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i230121

The continuous depletion of fossil fuel reserves and threats on climate change makes it essential for searching alternative energy sources. Renewable energy can play a vital role in this regard. Solar energy is the most promising renewable energy source available so far. In this paper, the availability of solar energy in Bangladesh and the prospects of solar photovoltaic based power generation are discussed. Analysis for different sources of solar energy is revealed. Especially the current scenario and prospect of Solar Park is investigated. And the result shows that according to the future plan, Solar Park is going to hold the largest share among all the renewable energy sources. According to the Renewable Energy Master Database, the total renewable energy capacity including all categories is about 2.4 GW. Among these, solar park projects are the main contributors in terms of capacity which is 2,110.56 MW.

Open Access Original Research Article

Population Pressure on Land Resources in Nigeria: The Past and Projected Outcome

H. I. Eririogu, R. N. Echebiri, E. S. Ebukiba

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 20-34
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i230122

Aims: This paper assesses the population pressure on land resources in Nigeria: The past and projected outcome.

Study Design: 1967 to 2068 time series data were used. The data sets were resorted to due to lack of complete national data.

Place and Duration of Study: Past (1967-2017) and projected (2018-2068) five decades in Nigeria.

Methodology: The time series data were obtained from the United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, National Population Commission, International Energy Statistics and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on population levels, renewable and non renewable resources in Nigeria. Others such as transformity were adapted from Odum (1996) and Odum (2000) for specific objectives. Data collected were analyzed using modified ecological footprint/carrying capacity approach, descriptive statistics and Z-statistics.

Results: Results showed that the mean annual pressure on land resources in the past five decades (1967-2017) was 9.323 hectares per capita, while the projected pressure in the next five decades (2018-2068) was 213.178 hectares per capita. Results also showed that about 73.08 percent of the pressure per capita in the past five decades emanated from arable land consumption (6.813ha), while 75.91percent of the pressure is expected to emanate from fossil land in the next projected five decades due to crude oil and mineral resource exploration and exploitation. The carrying capacity of land resources in the past five decades was 6.4091 hectares per capita, while that of the projected five decades was 1.667 hectares per capita, an indication of ecological overshoot in both periods.

Conclusion: Population pressures on land resources per capita in the past and projected five decades are higher than the carrying capacity of these resources in the country. Citizens lived and are expected to live unsustainably by depleting and degrading available land resources. Arable land consumption is the major contributor to the total pressure on land resources in the past five decades, while the consumption of fossil land due to exploration and exploitation of crude oil and mineral resources is expected to contribute majorly to the total pressure on land resources in the next five decades. Limiting affluence (per capita consumption of resources) and improving technology will not only ensure sustainable use of arable and fossil lands but place consumption within the limits of these resources for a sustainable future.

Open Access Original Research Article

Households’ Willingness to Pay for Biofuel Gel in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Contingent Valuation Study

Daniel A. Olawamide, Olaniran A. Thompson

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 35-43
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i230123

The study was carried out to determine the willingness to pay (WTP) for Biofuel gel among households in Lagos State, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and seventy-five households using multiple sampling procedure were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Logit regression model. The study showed that the mean willingness to pay for Biofuel gel was ₦280 (US $0.78) per litre. The study further revealed that there was significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the households and their willingness to pay for biofuel gel. Variables such as bid amount and household income had significant effect on the willingness to pay for biofuel at 1%. Bid amount had a negative coefficient of -0.0233655 on willingness to pay for biofuel gel. The study therefore recommends that price policies can be implemented in the form of price subsidies to foster the consumption of biofuel gel (clean fuels) in the study area, as respondents are more sensitive when it comes to their wallets and had identified high cost of the product as a major constraint for not consuming biofuel gel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Household Heads’ Intentions to Adopt Biogas Technology in Ghana

Martha Osei-Marfo, Nanne de Vries, Esi Awuah

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 44-56
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v4i230125

Evidence abounds that biogas technology has enormous health and environmental benefits, including improvement of community livelihood and health, sanitation, sustainable energy and reduced emissions. In spite of these benefits, intentions to adopt biogas technology are low among household heads in developing countries, notably Ghana. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of household heads’ intentions to adopt biogas technology, based on the theory of planned behavior. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 394 household heads’ using questionnaires. It was discovered that attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control are significant predictors and independently contributed to predicting household heads’ intentions to adopt biogas technology. Additionally, the study found that, the dynamics of ethnicity and education have a significantly direct effect on household heads’ intentions to adopt biogas technology. The study recommends that respected persons in local communities, using different ethnic dialects, lead public education and awareness creation on the benefits of the use of biogas technology. Besides, government should subsidize the cost of biogas plants installation so as to promote its adoption rate.