Open Access Data Article

Forecasting Solar PV Demand Split and Fuel Wood Usage Reduction in Eriti and Oke-Agunla Villages in Nigeria

Olalekan Aquila Jesuleye

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 45-60
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i130141

The study examined solar photovoltaic demand split and fuel wood usage reduction in Eriti and Oke-Agunla villages, that were among the pilot sites for solar electrification programs in the western ecological region of Nigeria. It used questionnaire techniques to elicit information in the local dialect of the respondents, on alternative energy sources for provision of energy services from each of the household's heads, representing solar PV users, in all the 371 households that constitute about 13.4 percent of the 2,778 dwellers in the two villages, for the base year 2020. Specifically, at the rate of the observed 8 dwellers per household, data were obtained from 179 respondents, out of a total of 1,434 dwellers in Eriti village. Likewise, at the rate of the observed 7 dwellers per household, data were also obtained from 192 respondents, out of a total of 1,344 dwellers in Oke-Agunla village. Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MADE-II) was used for the study. The study showed that the total lighting demand share for solar PV in each of the villages’ total energy demand mix in 2020 was insignificantly low at 5.1 percent share in Eriti village and 6.1 percent share in Oke-Agunla village. Contrariwise, firewood demand maintained as high as 94 and 92 percent share for Eriti and Oke-Agunla villages respectively in the total energy demand mix and by 2030, in Oke-Agunla village, 3-stones-firewood stoves demand for cooking fell drastically from 77% to 30% share, whereas improved firewood stoves demand for cooking rose astronomically from 11% share in 2020 to 45% share by 2030. Nigerian government should adopt such best policy intervention scenario for all the rural areas in the country.

Open Access Original Research Article

Direct Solvent Liquefaction of Tropical Hardwood Bark and Characterization of the Resulting Bio-Oil

Yetunde B. Olayiwola, Olajide A. Oluyege, Lajide Labunmi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i130137

Ethanol, water and ethanol/water mix were used to directly liquefy Detarium senegalense bark at 500°C for 15 min. Ethanol/water mix at 50/50% weight by weight showed synergistic effect on biomass direct liquefaction, and was found to be the most effective solvent for the liquefaction of Detarium senegalense bark. Water was more active than Ethanol when both mono-solvents were evaluated. Liquefaction with 100% water yielded 46% by weight of the bio-oil, compared with 30% by weight of bio-oil yield when 100% ethanol was used. The result however, show that 50% ethanol/water showed a synergistic effect and work best to obtain 52% bio-oil on the liquefaction whereas water was found hence more active than ethanol as a single solvent with 46% and 30% bio-oil respectively.

The GC-MS analysis of the obtained bio-oils from the three matrices confirmed the presence of phenolic compounds and aromatics such as benzenes, followed by aldehydes, long chain ketones and cyclic ketones and alcohol, esters, organic acids and ether compounds. The detected phenolic compounds were 4-ethyl-guaiacol, 2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, 2-methoxy-phenol, and 2-methoxy-4-vinyl-phenol., formed from the cleavage of guaiacyl and hydroxyphenyl-type lignin with varying degrees of alcohol substitution. Understanding and evaluating the liquefied products obtained from hardwood barks, could offer valuable information on the utilization of the biomass-liquefaction products for chemical or energy production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Properties of Composite Panels Fabricated from Waste Newspaper and Wood Dust for Structural Application

Ekong Ufot Nathaniel, Ubong Williams Robert, Mercy Effiong Asuquo

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i130138

In this work, dry forms of waste newspaper pulp, untreated wood dust and treated wood dust were used at varying weight proportions to fabricate composite panels which thenafter served as test samples. With increase in the content of either the untreated wood dust or the treated wood dust in the developed panels, the results showed increase in the mean values of bulk density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, flexural strength but decrease in the mean values of specific heat capacity and percentage water absorption. Also, at p < 0.05, significant differences were revealed in the mean values of bulk density and specific heat capacity between the results obtained for samples with untreated wood dust content and those associated with samples containing the treated wood dust. Again, samples containing the untreated wood dust were found to be better thermal insulators but with lower flexural strength than those of same proportions of the treated wood dust component. From application viewpoint, the findings in this work indicated that the fabricated samples could compete favorably with conventional materials commonly used for thermal insulation in buildings. It is, therefore, obvious that recycling waste newspaper and wood dust into such panels can help to reduce the adverse effect of the waste materials on environment also improve economy by providing building sector with low-cost and environmentally-friendly insulation materials suitable for internal building design.

Open Access Original Research Article

Acoustic Energy Harvesting in Nigeria: Prospects, Technical Problems and Socio-Economic Obstacles

Michael U. Onuu

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 16-33
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i130139

Aims: To investigate the prospects or potentials of acoustic energy harvesting in Nigeria as well as highlight technical problems and socio-economic obstacles.

Study Design: The study re-examined existing data, noise levels and noise power, from road traffic, aircraft, industrial/occupational, outdoor and indoor noise sources. Noise levels and noise power obtained from recent measurements of such noise sources were also examined and analyzed. The data were compared with values from noise sources used for electricity in other countries of the world. Technical problems and socio-economic obstacles have been highlighted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The duration was one year: April, 2019 and April, 2020.

Methodology: Wide range noise level measurements, analysis and re-examination of existing data on road traffic, aircraft, industrial/occupational, outdoor and indoor noise were conducted, in line with the objectives of the study, in cities, industries as well as homes with different noise features. Measurements were carried out using sound level meter, SLM, (Bruel and Kjaer 2203) with  – octave band filter and SLM, EXTECH 407750 with RS232, sound level recorder (B & K 7005), and noise level (statistical) analyzer (B & K 2121) to obtain noise levels and indices. Also, noise power was subsequently obtained for each of the various noise levels and indices.

Results: Maximum noise levels, Lmax.; noise power, Wmax.; octave band pressure levels, BPLs; and other indices for the different noise sources were determined. Lmax. and Wmax for aircraft were as high as 116 dB and 0.4 W, respectively, while those for industry and road traffic ranged from 104.0 dB-131.0 dB and 67.5 dB-85.6 dB corresponding to 0.025 W-12.59 W and 0.0000056 W-0.00036 W, respectively. Spectral power of road traffic noise varied between 5.17 x 10-5 W and 9.69 x 10-3 W. Outdoor and household noise sources had Lmax. of up to 48.5 dB and 88.0 dB, that is, 0.000000071 W and 0.00063 W, for quiet and noisy periods, respectively. It was observed that road traffic noise has the highest potential for acoustic energy harvesting in Nigeria being reasonably steady over time, especially, on intra-city roads. Availability of tricycles/motorcycles in abundance and frequent use of horn by motorists support this assertion. The noise levels and noise power from these sources obtained in this investigation are higher than those that have been used as input to acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs) such as piezoelectric based and triboelectric nanogenerators (TRENGs) to achieve known efficiencies as reported elsewhere.

Conclusion: The noise power is such that it could be used in powering microelectronic components, devices and in lighting light emitting diodes (LEDs). Power supply (PS) audio noise harvesters (ANHs) have been identified as potential noise energy sources since there is wide range use of air-conditioned by the political class, elites and government agencies in Nigeria where maximum temperature of 47.2°C is attainable. These findings show the viability of AEH in Nigeria and their addition to the existing body of knowledge in the emerging area of AEH will open a new window of research in AEH in this part of the world. Other prospects of AEH in Nigeria, technical problems and socio-economic obstacles are highlighted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of Biogas and Methane Yields from Different Sizes of Groundnut Shell in a Batch Reactor at Mesophilic Temperature

S. O. Jekayinfa, A. O. Adebayo, O. O. Oniya, K. O. Olatunji

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 34-44
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i130140

Aim: To study the effects of different sizes of groundnut shell on biogas and methane yields using batch reactor at mesophilic temperature.

Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of the Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, between August and October, 2018.

Methodology: Batch experiment was set up for a period of 35 days with substrate reduced to 2, 4 and 6 mm sizes. The digesters were subjected to anaerobic digestion at mesophilic condition and the gas produced were collected with graduated gas sampling bottles dipped in measuring cylinders already filled with red liquid. The total gas produced was analyzed using gas analyzer to give the percentage composition of the gas components and Enwuff equation was used to calculate the biogas and methane yields of organic dry matter and fresh mass of the samples.

Results: The total gas volume of 482.5, 605.0 and 732.5 ml were recorded for the sizes 2, 4 and 6 mm respectively. The organic dry matter biogas yields were 357.1, 514.31 and 324.5 lNkg-1oDM for treatment 2, 4 and 6 mm respectively; while organic dry matter methane produced were 222.41, 298.41 and 211.31 CH4kg-1oDM for 2, 4 and 6 mm, respectively. The fresh mass biogas yields were 147.6, 180.7 and 177.3 lNkg-1FM and fresh mass methane yield were 919, 104.8 and 115.4 lNCHkg-1FM for 2, 4 and 6 mm, respectively.

Conclusion: Considering the yields recorded, the experiment shows that size reduction had effect on biogas yields and it is an important factor to be considered in biogas production. Treatment with particle size 4 mm seems to be the ideal size when considered the yields in terms of organic dry matter and fresh mass basis.