Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable and Renewable Energy Strategies in Residential Buildings in Akure, Nigeria

Ayodele Emmanuel, Ikudayisi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i230142

Given the rising demand in building services and high level of energy consumption in buildings, sustainable issues have remained top agenda in developmental discuss. This study examines the level of adoption, barriers and willingness to adopt renewable energy and sustainable building strategies in Nigeria. The mean score ranking technique was employed to rate the relative weight of level of adoption of sustainable strategies considered. Natural lightning, shading devices, locally sourced materials, energy efficient lighting LED and photovoltaic solar panel were the most adopted strategies by professionals. Adoption of renewable and sustainable building strategies was constrained by lack of training, lack of expertise and financial scheme. Willingness to adoption the renewable energy and sustainable building strategies, were most pronounced with respect to renewable energy practices. However, the paper suggests that transition to the use of energy efficient and sustainable building materials as evident in top ranked efficient strategies. Finding contributes to empirical benchmarking for sustainable environment while policy options towards adoption were proffered.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic and Risk Analysis to Deep Water Operations

C. E. Ubani, A. O. Oluobaju

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 11-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i230143

The exploration and production (E&P) operations of oil and gas project in deep waters, is associated with risks. These risks affects return on investment if they are not identified and analyzed to reduce their impact on the project. This study seek to apply Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) analysis, Monte Carlo Simulation and Sensitivity analysis, to an existing field in the Niger Delta region in Nigeria, to ascertain the viability of deepwater project when it is affected by government fiscal terms and technical terms. Economic and risk models were developed to determine profitability indicators and risk associated with the project. Risk simulator software was used to carry out Monte Carlo simulation and the sensitivity analysis. Results obtained showed that the project was economically viable with a Net Present Value (NPV) of $1,621.8 million and Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 34%. The Monte Carlo Simulation and the sensitivity analysis showed that the Contractor’s NPV and percentage take were most sensitive to tax (under the fiscal terms) with an range of $639.27 million for a variation of by +/- 10% and crude price (under the technical term). The model developed can easily be applied in investment selections and decision makers should make decision based on the outcome of both economic model (cash flow analysis) and the risk model (Monte Carlo Simulation).

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Solar Radiation in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Andah Mamman, Umaru Ibrahim, Yusuf Samson Dauda, Idris Mohammed Mustapha, Bartholomew Paul

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i230144

One of the major environmental problem is the long-term changes in the Earth’s climate. In this study, the variation of solar radiation for Akwanga zone, Nasarawa State, Nigeria were determined. Twelve locations were carefully selected where there is no sunshine and wind obstruction. Three 12V, 5W Solar panels (poly) were used and a three-hour daily measurement interval (12.00 pm to 3.00 pm) was made using the Secondary Standard Pyranometer placed on the top of the panels. Angstrom-Prescott Regression Equation was used to estimate the output. The continuity in the assembled system was measured using an Avometer. The result revealed that the highest monthly average daily global solar radiation was observed in the month of April (25.2 MJ/m2) followed by June (22.94 MJ/m2), and march (22.42 MJ/m2), while the lowest was observed in the month of August (12.04 MJ/m2) followed by July (13.57 MJ/m2), and September (14.26 MJ/m2) in the locations selected. The solar radiation intensity was found to range from 156.44 W/m2 to 293.84 W/m2 with the mean value of 220.04 W/m2. The highest total global solar radiation value of 25.2MJ/m2 was observed in April while the lowest value of 12.04 MJ/m2 was observed in October. The extraterrestrial solar radiation were found to range from 16.72 MJ/m2 in March to 29.90 MJ/m2 in April with average value of 22.89MJ/m2. The atmospheric transmission coefficient over the year is found to range from 0.5 in July and October to 1.3 in June and October. The investigation reveal that there is bright sun shine in the study area which confirms high atmospheric transmission coefficient or clearness index throughout the year in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Solids Concentration on the Kinetic of Biogas Production from Goat Droppings

K. Eden Luboya, Mélissa Kusisakana, W. Gaston Luhata, K. Balthazar Mukuna, M. Justine Monga, L. Pierre Luhata

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i230145

This experiment was conducted at the Bioenergy laboratory of Groupe de Génies Congolais (GGC) at the Université Loyola du Congo in Kinshasa, D.R.Congo. The experiment started on May 23, 2019 and ended on July 17, 2019. The study focused on the relationship between solids concentration and the kinetic of anaerobic digestion of goat droppings in the methanation process. The feedstock consisted of goat droppings waste made into slurry of four solids concentration (SC); A=50%, B=38%, C=30% and D=25%. Each SC was repeated three times. Feedstocks were inserted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters constructed from 5L plastic containers. The results revealed clearly that the time required for the production of biogas depends on SCs. The ratio D (1/3), i.g. 75% of water and 25% of biomass produced the biogas in 3 weeks (±22 days) and the ratio A (1/1), 50% of water and 50% of biomass, in 7 weeks and a few days (±53 days). The ratio C (1/2), 66.6% of water in the mixture, provided the biogas in ± 26 days (approximately 4 weeks) and finally, it took ±30 days (4 weeks and a few days) for ratio B to produce biogas rich in CH4 (<50%). The equation f(x)= 1.1x + 1 can be used to predict the approximative number of days to produce a biogas containing more than 50% of CH4.

The average temperature inside the reactors was found to be 28.5 ± 0.8°C during the combustion testing process implying that the reactors designed at the GGC were operating in a mesophilic regime. Finally, the pH of the digestates obtained from reactors had an average of 9.0 ± 0.2.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wind Energy toward Electric Current Generation in Borno State, Nigeria

Umar M. Mohammed, Ja’afar Muhammad

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 34-38
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i230146

This research focused on evaluating the prospect of wind energy for electric power generation in Borno State, Nigeria was carried out. Sixteen years of monthly mean wind data at 10 m height of anemometer from the ministry of aviation Maiduguri (Maiduguri meteorological center) Nigeria were assessed and snubbed to Weibull two parameter and Rayleigh model of probability distribution. It was found that its monthly and annual variation recorded for the maximum speed were 6.97 m/s in 1997 and 5.23 m/s in 2001 respectively and the minimum wind speed was 1.00m/s and occur in the year 2012. The maximum mean wind speed occurs in March, June, July and August while the minimum value occurs in September. Maiduguri is a potential wind farm area; the moderate wind falls within the consistent values for wind power generation to operate wind turbine for electric power conversion. The study also displays that Maiduguri has annual power density approximately to power class (2) which is 87.98 W/m2 showing that it is perfect for grid connection and application.