Open Access Original Research Article

The Evaluating of Wind Energy Potential of Osmaniye

C. Kurt, B. Yelmen, M. T. Çakir

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i330148

In parallel with the rapid increase in energy consumption today, it is known that conventional energy resources will be exhausted in the near future. Renewable energy sources are becoming more important today with decreasing available fossil resources and increasing energy needs. Wind energy is a clean and renewable energy source and has a remarkable importance. Wind energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources, whose technology and use have developed rapidly and their economy has become competitive with fossil energy sources. The systems that convert the energy in the wind into electrical energy are wind turbines. Wind turbines are classified according to their rotational axes, revolutions, powers, number of wings, wind effect, gear characteristics and installation locations. Energy has become one of the most important problems of the world countries today. Energy demand, as in many countries, is increasing with each passing day in Turkey. For this reason, solutions are sought to provide the energy needed in a timely, sufficient and reliable manner. The energy needed in these solution suggestions should be provided from domestic production opportunities and local energy sources as much as possible. In this study, usability of wind energy is tried to be revealed in Osmaniye province and its surroundings. When the wind map studies in Turkey are examined, in Osmaniye Province it has been found that the presence of wind potential, it is necessary to increase the number of WPP to benefit more from the potential of wind energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Cow Manure

Klaus Dölle, Thomas Hughes

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 49-60
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i330149

Production of electricity, heat and fuel are important for today’s social and economic growth. Biogas produced by anaerobic co-digestion is an alternative, carbon-neutral, renewable fuel that can be generated from local, low-cost organic materials. Co-digestion of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and cow manure, was performed with a designed laboratory anaerobic fermentation system at 39°C ± 2°C. Co-digestion was conducted with 100% cow manure as a basis, and cow manure and water hyacinth ratios of 25%:75%:, 50%:50%, and 25%:75% for complete water hyacinth plants, water hyacinth roots and water hyacinth leaves fractions.

Biogas production per gram volatile solid for anaerobic digested cow manure was between 134 ml to 355.59 ml.

Co-digestion of cow manure and water hyacinth showed the highest average biogas production per gram volatile solids for complete water hyacinth and water hyacinth root mixture ratios of 25% cow manure and 75% of water hyacinth and water hyacinth roots yielding 273.01 ml and 462.63 ml respectively.

The least biogas per gram volatile solids produced during co-fermentation was for complete water hyacinth and water hyacinth root with a ratio of 75% cow manure and 25% water hyacinth and water hyacinth root, yielding 163.77 ml and 250.28 ml respectively.

Water hyacinth leave mixture at 50% cow manure and 50% water hyacinth leaves had the lowest average biogas production of 172.54 ml per gram volatile solids. The highest biogas production of 283.55 ml per gram volatile solids was achieved for a mixture of 75% cow manure and 25% water hyacinth leaves.

The biogas composition without CO2 showed a biogas content for the cow manure between 54 and 65%.

The application of co-digestion utilizing cow manure and water hyacinth as a feedstock could help minimize the negative environmental impact of water hyacinth and help to restore biodiversity, water quality and habitat of infested sites.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Perception of the Indoor Environment Quality (IEQ) of Private Hostels in Ifite-Awka, Nigeria

F. O. Ezeokoli, C. A. Omenyi, C. B. N. Bert- Okonkwo, N. B. Iheama

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 61-70
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i330150

This study aimed at evaluating the indoor environment conditions of the private hostels in Ifite Awka Anambra state with a view to establishing its quality and impacts on students dwelling on these hostels in the study area. Being a survey research, the study was affected by the use of questionnaire, literature searches and direct observations. Accordingly, a total of 311 questionnaires were administered while 258 questionnaires which represent 83% were returned and found useful. The study found that IEQ parameters of hostels in study area are: Indoor air quality was poor due to inadequate ventilation of rooms; thermal comfort of rooms was found to be warm; indoor light quality was found good and the acoustics comfort and noise slightly good and to some extent poor. Therefore, the study recommended that during the design and construction of buildings, IEQ parameters should be considered, so as to obtain a quality indoor environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Environmental Footprint Factors on Nigerian University Campus: Multi-Criteria Analysis and System Dynamics Modelling

Olaoluwa Paul Aasa, Olalekan Aquila Jesuleye, Adeyemi Oluwaseun Adepoju

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 71-85
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i330152

Performing their role as think tank and model of the world in environmental management, universities need a more inclusive and “whole-of-university” approach to environmental issues. Accordingly, this study adopted Participatory Action Research (PAR) design to the analysis Environmental Footprint (EF) factors on university campus using Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA) and System Dynamics (SD) Model. A group of 13 informants who are environmental experts on The Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), Nigeria campus were purposively selected to form an environmental assessment team for the study. Primary data were collected using environmental factors assessment form designed for the purpose after initial aggregation of contents from secondary sources. Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) revealed that energyprint (48.00 per cent) is the highest driver of environmental footprint followed by transportprint (30.20 per cent) and wasteprint (21.80 per cent) respectively while 'survival capability (best practices)' (40.70 per cent) was found to have the highest possibility of reducing it than any other inhibitors – legitimacy (environmental regulation) (34.60 per cent) and resource capability (societal practices) (24.70 per cent). To achieve a reduction in environmental footprint, scenario analyses based on Stock and Flow model of System Dynamics showed that the institution should annually combine Corporate Social Responsibility and University Rules and Regulations in proportions, 53.6 per cent and 46.4 per cent respectively. Thus, the study recommended the implementation institution-wide policy supported by awareness creation among stakeholders to foster both individual and institutional level commitments for reducing footprints.

Open Access Review Article

From Fossil Fuels to Renewable Biogas Production from Biomass Based Feedstock – A Review of Anaerobic Digester Systems

Klaus Dölle, Thomas Hughes, David E. Kurzmann

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-37
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v5i330147

Three-quarters of the global energy consumption is expected to come from fossil fuels by 2040 despite many drawbacks to the world’s reliance on fossil fuels. The primary drawback of fossil fuels is in procuring, transporting, refining, and combusting them which generates pollution biproducts, global warming, which in turn generate a plethora of associated problems. Biomass as a renewable resource and its conversion into renewable fuel products can offset use and drawback of fossil fuels.

Anaerobic digestion is known since the 10thcentury BC has become today a versatile tool to produce renewable energy in form of biogas from many biomass-based feedstock sources. These sources can be agriculturally based such as livestock waste, energy crops, plant (lignocellulosic) based, forest residues, or industrial and municipal waste such food waste, wastewater treatment sludge, distiller grains and food product residues. Feed stocks can be used in anaerobic fermentation processes as single or co-digest feedstock. Each feedstock represents a challenge on its own for anaerobic digestion processes in order achieve good operational stability and good biogas production.

Selecting a suitable anaerobic fermentation process from today’s available technical sound processes described in this review is essential for future fossil fuel independence.