Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assessment of Awareness and Knowledge of Impact of Energy Use Behaviour among Nigerian Higher Education Institutions Residence Students

Olanipekun E. A., Iyiola C. O.

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i130157

The aim of this study was to understand and compare residence students’ awareness and knowledge of the impacts of their reported energy use practices, and to explore their attitudes and reported behaviour regarding energy saving using data collected from three different higher institutions in Southwest, Nigeria namely Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Rufus Giwa Polytechnic (RUGIPO), Owo and Adeyemi College of Education, (ACE), Ondo. The findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the three tertiary institutions regarding their level of awareness with RUGIPO having the highest and ACE having the lowest awareness level (F = 3.571, p = 0.002). The research also found that ACE exhibits the highest scores for almost all aspects of energy use behaviour. The correlation analysis shows a significant correlation between level of awareness and energy use behaviour (R =0.897**, p=0.001).The result shows no significant difference between the level of awareness and socio-demographic characteristics of respondents except gender in RUGIPO (F = 7.654, p = 0.007). The result shows no significant difference between the energy use behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics of respondents except age  = 23.407, p = 0.000) and academic qualification  = 28.232, p = 0.000) for turning off light when not needed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production from Co-digestion of Cotton Yarn Waste and Human Urine

Maurice Twizerimana, Milton Marimi, Xumay Bura, Eric Oyondi Nganyi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 20-29
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i130158

Aim: To investigate the feasibility of producing biogas from anaerobic co-digestion of cotton yarn wastes (CY) and human urine (HU) using fresh cow dung as the inoculum.

Study Design: Anaerobic co-digestion of CY waste and HU and CY waste alone were done using batch reactors.

Place and Duration of Study: CY were collected from Rivatex Eastern Africa Limited, Eldoret, Kenya while fresh cow manure used as inoculum was collected from a farm at Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya. Human urine sample was collected in a clean sterile container at Moi University hostel, Eldoret, Kenya. The experimental set up and analyses were performed at Chemical and Process Engineering Laboratory, Moi University, Kenya between January 2020 and May 2020.

Methodology: CY, HU and fresh cow dung were subjected to physicochemical analysis. Batch anaerobic co-digestion of CY and HU, and CY alone were carried out under ambient temperature (25 ± 3 ) conditions for 95 days and 37 days, respectively.

Results: The CY contained 90.46% total solids, 77.12% volatile solids and 9.54% moisture content while the corresponding values for HU were 2.9%, 58.5% and 97.1%, respectively. CY had a high carbon to nitrogen ratio. The biogas yield from anaerobic co-digestion was 35.6% more than digestion of CY alone. The highest daily biogas production for co-digestion and digestion of CY alone were 330 mL and 386 mL on day 12 and 21, respectively. The total biogas yield when CY co-digested for 95 days was 10,125 mL which decreased to 6,519 mL without co-digestion after 37 days.

Conclusion: Our results showed that co-digestion produced more biogas than digestion of CY alone. Conclusively, the presence of HU during anaerobic digestion of CY enhanced the biogas production by more than 35.6% demonstrating that HU could be an effective waste for co-digestion of solid wastes such as CY. Further research should focus on monitoring parameters like temperature, buffering capacity and fatty acid levels to ensure optimal efficiency and maximum biogas yield.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Simulation of Ipomoea involucrata Dye Extracts for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

A. O. Boyo, O. S. Oseni, O. A. Ibrahim, R. O. Kesinro, F. S. Akingbade, A. M. Oladepo, P. Okafor, A. O. Abiola

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i130159

Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using crude and purified extracts from Ipomoea involucrata leaves and flowers. The crude extract was obtained using a solvent system based on the combination of distilled water, ethanol and nitric acid. Furthermore, the purified extract comprising anthocyanins was obtained from the crude extracts. In order to study, the effectiveness of the dye, optical and electrical characteristics was determined using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and solar simulator respectively. The highest power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 0.00412% and 0.00234% was obtained for crude and purified extracts respectively. Also, optical absorbance examined indicate similar absorption pattern for the crude extracts as well as purified extracts. A distinctive peak between 500 and 550 nm was observed for the crude flower extract. The widespread availability of these plants and ease of extraction of the extracts make them useful as absorbers in DSSCs. Consequently, simulation to determine the performance of the extracts was established using MATLAB.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comprehensive Analysis of Planning Operation and Protection of Microgrid Systems

Raheel Muzzammel

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 40-58
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i130160

Microgrid is a decentralized system in which electrical sources and loads are connected in a way that operates normally in connection with and in synchronous with conventional grid. This system has the ability to work autonomously by disconnecting from conventional grid in island mode. Microgrid offers large number of advantages in power system. Among them, integration of renewable energy sources, reliability, two-way power flow and cost effectiveness are the significant merits of microgrids. Besides its advantages, different challenges are associated with the planning, operation and protection of microgrid systems. Safe two-way power flow, reliable switching of renewable energy, optimal power flow, quick isolation of faulty part from healthy system and incorporation of energy mix modeling are the major challenges behind its real time implementation. In this research, comprehensive analysis is carried out on the planning, operation and protection of microgrid model. A test system is developed in Matlab/ Simulink in which solar power source, wind power source and diesel power source are modelled and connected to residential, commercial and industrial loads. Optimal power flow is achieved through Newton’s method. In addition to this, operation of microgrid test system is ensured by the observation of voltage, current and power under steady state and transient conditions of wind based power generation, DC and AC parameters for solar power generation and generation and demand of power in the case of diesel based power generation within acceptable limits. Circuit breakers are installed to ensure protection against faults. Priority is made on the basis of promotion of renewable energy sources. Moreover, realization of microgrid is depicted with its hardware prototype.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Optimization of Partitioned Electric Water Heaters for Energy Conservation

A. K. Kar, R. Yazicioglu, O. Yazicioglu

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 59-73
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i130161

Optimum design and selection of storage type electric water heaters were analyzed for energy conservation. The thermal performance of a single tank electric water heater is compared with that of partitioned electric water heater for the same average domestic hourly hot water use pattern according to Becker’s profile. Both water heaters have the same volume capacity and total power rating while the temperature of the hot water was kept between 60 and 65oC. It is concluded that a partitioned electric water heater provides more hot water and reduces energy consumption whereas the upper part of the tank has 25% of the total volume and 75% of the total power rating.

 To evaluate single tank and partitioned electric water heaters transient energy balance equations have been derived and solved. Some assumptions made and thermodynamic properties received to use the evaluate differential equations. To represent water heater models equations required data obtained from literature.