Open Access Original Research Article

Design, Fabrication and Testing of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Integrated with Vacuum Tubes Solar Water Heater

Khaled S. AlQdah, Abdullah Alfredi, Nasser Alnuman, Mohannad Aljohani, Mishary Almutairi, Abdulmajeed Alhazmi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i330167

Heat exchanger is a device used to accomplish the transfer of heat from one fluid to another. There are a wide variety of applications regarding shell and tube heat exchangers in the fields of petroleum and industrial applications, due to its enhanced heat transfer characteristics. This project was designed to establish an insight of detailed design and performance of the shell and tube heat exchanger based on energy and mass conservation laws. Solar water heating system techniques were used to provide the system with necessary hot water. One of these techniques was to evacuate tube solar heating system which can be considered as a more efficient way to supply this system with hot water. To enhance the system performance, proper material selection for shell and tubes structure and flow pipe network based on their availability in the local markets was brought into consideration as well. Furthermore, the implemented design was examined under Medina climatic conditions for its cost-effectiveness, simplicity, execution and sustainability. It was found that the heat exchanger efficacy, performance and the vacuum tube efficiency were in highly acceptable ranges and cost effective. In addition, the vacuum tube solar water heating was found to be a clean and safe source of renewable energy. Finally, a comprehensive analysis of the system effectiveness was conducted and the outlet temperature determined for the system varied between 44 to 50ºC for the heat exchanger whereas the vacuum tube exit temperature was elevated up to 84 to 90ºC. The efficiency of the solar collector was found to be 61.84%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions of the Impact of Biogas: A Case Study from Pakistan’s Southern District Muzaffargarh

Muhammad Zubair, Muhammad Sajid Imran, Syed Bilal Hussain, Akash Jamil

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 17-24
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i330169

In the era when climate change is causing havoc on the health, economics, infrastructure and environment of the mankind, alternatives to fossil fuel energies being promoted. Renewable energy resources are more sustainable as compared to fossil fuels and have the potency to replace conventional and pollution inducing energy resources. Biogas an alternative green energy resource that generates energy from organic matter has been introduced in Pakistan.  This energy resource has found to have a great potential and many initiatives of biogas has been initiated by the government and non-government organizations. The present study was designed in order to understand the level of awareness and preference of using biogas as an alternative energy resource for day to day household activities. The study involved a primary data collection from 10 villages in District Muzaffargarh. Data were gathered from 70 livestock farming households in the study sites using purposive sampling. Descriptive analysis was used in order to depict the status, level of utilization and preference of biogas over other conventional sources. It was observed that addition of a biogas among the already present fuel sources have divided the burden on solid biomass fuels. The empirical evidence displayed that the people experienced a cut in their expenses, smaller number of ailments has been registered since the use of this green energy. The study concluded that awareness and information regarding the biogas technology must be publicized in order to generate eminent profits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bad Gains: Effects of Fossil Fuel Energy on Africa

Enongene Rex Nkumbe

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 25-33
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i330170

Energy is indispensable to global economic development and human development. Through the course of history, different energy sources have been used to fuel economic growth and better human life. The fossil economy fuelled unprecedented economic growth that was not possible with previous energy epochs. The development brought about by fossil fuels has not been beneficial for all and this paper argues that fossil fuel energy sources; specifically oil and gas have had more of negative political and socio-cultural implications for Africa. Using secondary data sources from books, articles and reports, the study finds out that oil resources have helped is sustaining dictatorships and socioeconomic hardship in oil producing countries in Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Yielding Potential of Maize Chaff Inoculated with Cow Rumen and Its Characterization

S. Chukwuka Iweka, K. C. Owuama

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 34-50
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i330171

Human Life on earth is driven by energy and with the global challenge on best ways to manage waste, there is need to convert organic waste to bioenergy which will help reduce the rate of environmental pollution and over dependence on conventional source of energy. In this investigation maize chaff were inoculated with cow rumen using different concentration ratios (S/I) of 1:1, 1: 1.55, 1:3.5 for 25, 31 and 37 days Retention Time (RT) as design by Central Composite Face Centered Design to optimize the process and predict the best response. The result obtained shows that the mixture ratio of 0.65 (1:1.55) for 31 days gave the optimum yield while 0.65 mixing ratio for 37 days gave the maximum yield at 0.42L under mesophilic (20°C to 45°C) condition. The Flash point of the cummulative maximum yield was -164°C which is really flammable. The model F-value is 95.03, p-values is < 0.0001 which is less than 0.05 and both values indicate model terms are significant. Lack of Fit F-value of 0.43 implies the fitting effect is good. Its R2 value of 0.9855 is very close to 1 which is good. In addition, the biogas products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FTIR analyzes showed the presence of Alcohol and was further proven by 69% methane gotten as indicated by the GC-MS. Thus, the result shows high methane yield, flammability and suitability for maize chaff inoculated with cow rumen for energy production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Consumption Analysis in Rural School Buildings in Surigao Del Sur, Mindanao Philippines

Odinah Cuartero- Enteria, Albert S. Dela Peña

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 51-61
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2020/v6i330172

The study is focused on preliminary analyzes of the energy consumption in rural school buildings, particularly in Surigao Del Sur, Mindanao, Philippines. The study looked into the determination of different contributory factors on energy consumption, conservation practices of employees and annual average energy consumption records. The exploratory research design was used where secondary data from the annual energy consumption bill of selected rural school buildings served as primary source of data. The data covered the records from years 2014 to 2019 indicating the fluctuation of energy consumption of the university. Consecutive sampling method was also employed in the selection of participants to be surveyed and interviewed for conservation practices. Based on the results, the number of occupants and their behaviors significantly contributes on the fluctuation of energy consumption in school because it pertains to the working hours extended when important activities are scheduled. Some of the identified contributory factors on energy consumption can be sourced out from how faculty and administrative personnel utilized the school lighting (84%), air-condition (51%) and number of operating hours occupying the schools (78%) and operating electronic equipment (25%).  Although there are records on high increase of energy consumptions in buildings, faculty and personnel are still aware on conservation practices they could contribute to reduce the energy operating cost.