Open Access Minireview Article

An Approach of the Hydropower: Advantages and Impacts. A Review

Sebastian Naranjo Silva, Javier Álvarez del Castillo

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i130201

The present review shows a perspective of hydropower development, a renewable source that has a global installed capacity of 1308 GW with 9000 stations around the world. The document showed the advantages and the impacts around the different author’s perspectives. The review method consisted of defining a criterial find of articles, thesis and scientific material to consolidate the knowledge and give a viewpoint of this renewable source. The results show extensible affectations from hydropower expansion and this renewable energy source that requires analysis and study to delineate development sustainable with multidisciplinary areas of reflection. Moreover, the investigated results worldwide show that hydropower is not a pollution source; however, it has environmental impacts, social and cultural; such facilities may affect land, homes, and natural habitats. It concludes that the development of hydroelectric projects brings benefits but entails unavoidable impacts; therefore, it recommends that these affections must evaluate with detailed studies based on sustainability criteria.

Open Access Minireview Article

Energy Security and Nigeria’s Sustainable Development: SDG 2030 (7)

Kajogbola Rasaq Ajao, Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun, Habeeb Adewale Ajimotokan, Mohammed Ajibola Shuaib

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i130204

Over the years, affordable and sustainable energy has been regarded as the backbone of any country needed for the development of her social and economic sectors. Sustainable energy is vital to the production of goods and services, transport, agriculture, health as well as an instrument for politics, security, and diplomacy.  Nigeria is regarded as one of the most populous countries in Africa and is blessed with rich and diverse energy resources. However, poor access to affordable and sustainable energy by a larger percentage of the population has become a norm in the past decades and this has constituted greatly to the poor economic and social development of the country. This paper provides a minireview of the different potentials of energy resources in the country, prospects, and challenges of achieving energy security in Nigeria by the year 2030 as detailed in the United Nations sustainable development goal (SDG: 2030). The paper also discussed recent efforts by the government of Nigeria in tackling the energy crisis bedeviling the country. Findings from the review showed that Nigeria is blessed with abundant energy resources. However, the government needs to be proactive in the implementation of some of the proposed actions such as having a clear policy direction on energy and inclusion of renewable energy sources into the energy mix and reduction in energy wastage in its stride towards meeting sustainable development goal (SDG: 7) by the year 2030.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of 780 Wp Rooftop Solar PV Power Backup System in Western Kenya

Wilkins K. Cheruiyot, Joel K. Tonui, Samuel C. Limo

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i130200

Aim: This study aimed to carry out performance analysis of a 780 Wp PV power backup system installed at a learning institution in Western.

Study design: To achieve this goal, site solar radiation received, ambient temperatures, dc current and dc voltages were measured in order to carry out performance evaluation of the PV backup system.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of electronics and electrical, Kaiboi Technical Training Institute in Nandi County, western Kenya was studied, between January 2020 and December 2020.

Methodology: Performance of any PV system depends on the operating conditions (solar radiation, ambient/module temperature, etc.) available at the site (geolocation dependent), installation (tilt and orientation) of the arrays, and finally proper system sizing (PV array, battery, BOS). In this paper, standard performance parameters reported in literature were utilized to evaluate the performance of the studied PV backup system. The array comprises of four panels interconnected in series/parallel to produce an output power rating of 780 W. A Pyranometer was mounted on the plane of array (POA) to measure solar radiation intercepted by the PV array where daily data were acquired at an interval of five minutes. I-v data were also recorded. Different literature was reviewed to identify the way to do this work.

Results: Based on the performance of the studied PV system, results obtained show that annual effective energy output is 3412.94 kWh, array efficiency range between 11.6% to 14.1% depending on amount of solar radiation, array yield of 4.88 kWh/kW, reference yield of 5.5 kWh/kW, annual average performance ratio of 76.3% and average array capture losses of 0.52 kWh/kW.

Conclusion: It found that the PV backup system need ~5-6 hours to operate at the array’s rated output power, and that the PV backup system performance is adequate with regard to yield and performance ratios.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparison of Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller and Load Tap Changing Transformer for Voltage Stability Enhancement in a Power System

Adewale Obaro, Isaiah Adebayo

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i130202

The continuous increase in power demand and huge power losses in modern power systems have been a growing concern to power utilities. Such phenomenon often results in epileptic power supply, power system instability, supply fluctuations and security problems in many parts of the globe. Identification of suitable places for the installation of reactive power compensators to minimize voltage drop and system power losses in a power system becomes imperative. In this paper, the Newton-Raphson iterative method was used for the power flow solution of the 28 bus Nigerian 330KV grid system. The Generalized Unified Power flow Controller (GUPFC) is installed at identified weak load buses of the Nigerian 28-bus power system to reduce the losses and voltage drop of the system. A comparative analysis of the GUPFC with Load Tap Changing Transformers (LTCT) is also performed. Result obtained shows that the GUPFC can largely (effectively) improve the system power stability and selectively balance the power flow of multi-lines power flows when placed at identified weak buses compared with LTCT.  Thus, GUPFC can be used to reduce overall power losses along transmission lines as well as improve stability overall reliability of the power grid system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Grid-connected and Stand-alone Photovoltaic Systems for Residential Energy Usage: A Technical Analysis

Kehinde Adeleye Makinde, Oludamilare Bode Adewuyi, Abraham Olatide Amole, Oyetunde Adeoye Adeaga

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 34-50
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i130203

Towards realizing the United Nations sustainable development goals, access to clean, cheap and reliable energy, especially electricity, has been considered as one of the vital indices in any community. Hence, this paper presents the design analysis of both a grid-connected and an offgrid photovoltaic (PV) systems for household users in the highly residential city of Ogbomoso in Nigeria using PVGIS software. For the off-grid design, it is estimated that, given a total daily load of 9.57 kWh, a 3.5 kWp PV array size and a battery capacity of 86 kWh are enough to power the load  with 5 days of autonomy and 70% depth of battery discharge. For the grid-connected PV system, the annual energy output for a building-integrated PV system is found to be around 4006 kWh; and a total of eight PV modules (each rated 250 Wp, 30.93 V) are stringed to arrive at the desired capacity of 2 kWp. In terms of performance, the performance ratio (PR) of a building integrated grid-tied PV system at the study location was found to be 71.2% while for a free-standing PV system, the PR was 75%.