##### Availability of Renewable Energy Sources in Mauritania: Potential, Current Status and Mitigation Potential

Cheikh Sidi Ethmane Kane, Labouda Ba, Gildas Tapsoba, Marie-Christine Record, Fanta Haidara

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 21-29
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i230206

For decades, Mauritania's economy has been fueled by thermal power.  As a developing economy, Mauritania's electricity demand has long been relatively low, though it has increased recently due to economic growth, urbanization, and industrial activities. The rapid growth in demand is making the country more dependent on oil and gas-based generation power plants, which a resultant drain on the national economy. However, Mauritania has abundant renewable energy potential. the deployment of renewable energy can be an alternative solution to reduce the dependence on fossil resources. In this paper, we have reviewed the situation of the power generation sector, the potential of renewable energy, the integration of renewable energy in Mauritania's energy mix and the mitigation potential. The installed capacity in 2018 is 415.5 MW. The percentage of thermal power plants is 59.8% and 40.2% of the integrated capacity is provided by renewable energy. In 2018, the total electric power generation was 1958.5 GWh, the contribution of renewable energy was 979.75 GWh. The IPCC 2006 methodology was used to estimate GHG emissions. The results showed that the integration of renewable energy into the country's energy mix reduced emissions by approximately 212.58 Gg CO2eq.

##### Influence of the Socio-Economic Profile of the Head of Household on Domestic Energy Use for Cooking in the City of Uíge, Angola

Monizi Mawunu, Arlete E. T. Miguel, Iracelma J. Bengui, Nsimba F. E. Mawunu, Masidivinga Landu, Mayi Mbemba, Mbumbu Luswamu, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Luyindula Ndiku, F. Lukoki Luyeye

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 30-43
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i230207

The city of Uíge, capital of the province of Uíge in northern Angola, presents a diversity of lifestyles, socio-economic levels and domestic energy sources for cooking. The present study aimed to identify the different domestic energy sources used in cooking operations in households in the city of Uíge, both in urban and peri-urban areas, as well as the reasons for their choice. By means of a semi-structured survey, 384 heads of households residing in three neighborhoods of the city of Uíge were interviewed, 96 (Kituma), 192 (Papelão) and 96 (Popular No. 1). The majority of households in the city of Uíge are headed by men (75%), 77% in Papelão; 78% in Popular No. 1; 69% in Kituma. 98% of the men are literate, the majority having attended junior or senior-high school (50%) and higher education (34%). Only 84% of female heads of household are literate, 30% have attended junior-high school and 22% adult education. In addition, the majority (55%) of households in the city of Uíge use Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) for cooking. LPG is the main source of domestic energy for public servants (79%) and traders (66%) in the city of Uíge. Firewood is the main (54%) source of domestic energy used by small farmer households. But, 79% of households headed by university students cook mainly with LPG. In addition, 67% of heads of households with senior-high school and 41% with junior-high school use LPG as their main source of household energy. On the other hand, about 60% of illiterate people use wood as their main source of energy. In contrast, none of the head of households with higher education level use firewood to prepare food. Moreover 68% of the respondents’ grill or roast with charcoal because it gives a better taste to the food and 25% of the respondents do so because of culinary or cultural habits. Charcoal is the main energy source (89%) for grilling and roasting. Households that cook with charcoal and firewood spend US$59.63 per month compared to US$ 13.24 for those who use LPG. Making modern commercial energy equipment available to all Angolan households would help low-income and poorly educated households to use the clean, modern energy they crave for cooking. Econometric studies should be conducted to estimate the correlation between household energy consumption and the number of inhabitants per household, for example.

##### On Linear and Non-Linear Approximation In the Theory of Convective Heat Transfer

M. Y. Davidzon

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 44-51
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i230208

A system of linear equations that is currently widely used to describe convective heat transfer does not seem to be able to explain some experimental facts. One of the reasons for this may lie in using Newton’s and Fourier’s linear laws when deriving energy and Navier-Stokes equations. Replacing linear equations with nonlinear ones, as well as using an expression for surface heat flux density that is based on laws of physics instead of expressions called ‘cooling laws,’ would allow to solve a wider range of problems, and also would better agree with the experimental data. The use of proposed non-linear system of equations would also permit engineers in chemical, textile, defense, power, and other industries to design more economical and smaller-sized heat exchange devices.

##### Design and Cost Analysis of an Off-grid Solar Grain Mill

Théogène Nshimyumukiza, Christophe Bananeza, Jean Marie Vianney Niyodusenga, Jean De Dieu Munyaneza, Etienne Iraguha

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 52-76
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i230209

Solar Energy in Rwanda is one of renewable energy sources that is being utilized nowadays in different remote regions of the country due to its considerable social-economic impact. The off-grid solar photovoltaic system turns solar irradiance into electricity to be used in remote areas without being connected to the national grid. Normally people living in those areas use diesel engines to perform their daily activities which require electricity and this has a crucial negative effect on the environment as they are contributing much to the environmental pollution. To address this problem and to reduce these effects caused by thermal engines, this project designs a solar system that will replace those thermal engines by not only reducing their environmental effects but also by allowing the households living in vicinity of system location to have easy access to the electricity. An off-grid solar grain mill provides the grain mill services to those people in remote areas far from the national grid. The system designed will use the solar home system components such as photovoltaic modules, charge controller, batteries and an inverter as generation components and grain mill machine. It has the capacity of 13.56kW whereby 7.5kW of them are used to run grain mill machines and the remaining are used by the local community for lighting purposes. Electrical design and simulation were done by using MATLAB SIMULINK for solar systems. The research method includes weather condition, site survey, data collected from different organizations related to agriculture and energy sector. The system designed and simulated via software has shown good characteristics in terms of both performance and running grain mill machines. The overall system provided ways of getting services to people who don’t have access to electricity especially whose daily life is agriculture based. The total cost of the project was estimated to be $29,690 with its annual income of$9,720 and then a payback period of 3.05years.

##### Modeling Renewable Electricity Generation for Northern Cyprus (TRNC)

Oluwatosin Uthman Zubair

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i230205

Several researches have been done on modeling renewable energy for different countries and continents, employing unique approaches, strategies and methodologies. This paper aims to do the same by using the sunlight and wind resources to model a hybrid renewable energy system for the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). This paper will also carry out a comparative analysis between the modeled renewable energy generation and the present electricity generation in the country. The paper will also depict how the renewable energy relates with the country load, based on the amount of energy generated from renewable resources and the size of battery used to store excess renewable energy generated. This paper will also show how base load power plants do not allow lots of renewable energy penetration, because of the varying nature of wind and solar resources.