Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Evaluation of Health Risk due to Inhalation of PM2.5 Pollutants in the Metropolitan Areas of Toluca Valley and Mexico Valley

Raúl Venancio Díaz-Godoy, José López-Monroy, Jaime Moreno-Alcántara, Judith Castellanos-Moguel, María Teresa Nuñez-Cardona, Martha Patricia Sierra-Vargas, Octavio Gamaliel Aztatzi-Aguilar, Angélica Flores-Ortiz

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330210

Aims: In the present work, health risk from inhalation of PM2.5 pollutants in both areas was assessed spatially

Place and Duration of Study: The metropolitan areas of the Toluca (MATV) and Mexico Valleys (MAMV), between September and November 2009.

Methodology: A simultaneous sampling campaign was conducted in the Toluca and Mexico Valleys on alternate days from September-22 to November-29, 2009. From the samples collected, their gravimetric concentration was obtained, and S, Cl, K, Ca Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined using the particle-induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE).

Results: The health risk by inhalation of PM2.5 with a higher result for the metropolitan area of the Toluca Valley (2.09 for adults, 6.25 for children from 6-12 years old, and 6.58 for children from 2-6 years old) in contrast with that of the metropolitan area of the Mexico Valley (1.67 for adults, 5.20 for children from 6-12 years old, and 5.28 for children from 2-6 years old).

Conclusion: These results are perhaps due to the higher concentration of Cl and Mn for the MATV. Additionally, the air parcels from sampling site MAMV go to MATV and thus contributes to an increased health risk from inhalation of PM2.5. There are health risks for the inhalation of PM2.5 in the MATV and MAMV study areas. The risk only considers the elemental risk. There are no similar studies for this comparison between MATV and MAMV in the literature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Placement of Capacitor Bank on Ondo 132/33KV Transmission Substation

A. O. Adetunmbi, T. D. Ebinowen, F. T. Oyediji, A. A. Adetunji

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 17-25
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330211

Introduction: Relevancies of electrical power system to consumers cannot be overemphasized. This requires healthy operation of such system. 132/33KV network is an important network within the transmission system and its importance calls for effective and efficient operation. However, due to the long distance at which the transmission line span, the nature of the lay (either overhead or underground) and type of cable used, there are series of voltage instability and power loss along the transmission network which are threat both economically and technically to both electricity providers and consumers because of the cost implication of the losses and effect on the stability of the network.

Aims: This research aims is to seek optimal placement of a capacitor bank to proffer solution to both voltage instability and power loss problem by simulating Ondo 132/33KV transmission network using NEPLAN software.

Methodology: The network model was developed using NEPLAN software. The voltage profile and power loss with and without capacitor bank were determined from power load flow solutions using Newton-Raphson method.

Results: Effects of optimal placements of capacitors along the studied transmission line is established.

Conclusion: Proper installation of capacitor bank is also found to enhance performance with an accompanied improvement in voltage profile along the buses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioethanol Production and Proximate Compostion of Waste Potatoes

I. Saidu, A. M. Danjuma, A. Wakkala

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 26-30
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330212

Bioethanol can be produced from biological matter through processing of food wastes or crops meant for bioethanol production. This study used potato wastes from food vendors in Sokoto, Nigeria as a cheap and renewable carbon source for fermentation of ethanol. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to optimize the growth parameters and hydrolysis of potato wastes of the ethanol fermentation aimed at achieving maximum production of bioethanol. Following the analysis, results indicated that, a combination of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5% of H2SO4 at 121˚C for 20 min in an autoclave can yield complete hydrolysis of all starch contents of potato wastes. The average proximate composition of the potato wastes showed 13.94%,1.42%, 1.72%,1.38%,0.43% and 81.11% of Moisture, Ash, Fat, Crude protein, Fiber and Carbohydrate contents respectively. Positive confirmation of reducing sugars and bioethanol was achieved by using benedicts and Jones’ reagents respectively, Quantitative Test for reducing sugars indicated 124.9 mg/gm, 88.6 mg/gm, 61.45 mg/gm, 53.22 mg/gm, 47.23 mg/gm for 0.5%, 1.5%, 2.0%,2.5% and 3% concentrations respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Investigation of Heat Losses from a Heat Pipe Based Parabolic Trough Collector used for Direct Steam Generation

Abiem Louis Tersoo, Akoshile Clement Olufemi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 31-39
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330213

The performance of a thermosiphon based parabolic trough collector (PTC) used for direct steam generation depends largely on the heat losses of the solar thermal system. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the heat losses in a thermosiphon based solar thermal system that used a linear receiver with a PTC for the generation of low temperature steam. A locally constructed PTC was used to concentrate sun rays to a linear copper pipe enclosed in an evacuated glass tube and held at the focal line of the PTC to heat water and generate steam. Circulation of the water in the closed-loop solar thermal system was through natural convection. A solar meter was used to measure the incident radiation flux at the experimental site and PT100 temperature sensors were installed at different points of the system to measure the temperature distribution within the system. The thermal efficiency and overall heat losses of the system were investigated by fitting the experimental data to standard equations. The results showed that the instantaneous thermal efficiency of the system was 46.48%, 43.1% and 45.32% respectively for three days examined. The overall heat losses in the system were 1211.95, 974.32 and 911.26 kwh per day respectively for the three days investigated. Heat losses from the tank accounted for over 83% of the losses for all the days examined. The evacuated glass tube reduced heat losses from the receiver to very low values of 2.31, 1.63 and 1.43 KWh per day respectively for the three days tested. The use of a better insulating material on the tank was recommended to reduce convective and conductive heat losses, thereby enhancing the performance of the system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Chance of Commerciality of Petroleum Assets for Economic Development

U. Georgeson Victor, Omowumi O. Iledare, Joseph A. Ajienka

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 40-61
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i330214

The chance to discover hydrocarbon volumes of economic quantity diminishes with progressive discovery in explored basins. Given the preponderance of smaller deposits in extensively explored basins and the cost implications of discovering deposits less than the required Minimum Economic Reserves (MER), explorationists and investors in exploration activities need a framework to evaluate the chance of a successful petroleum resources discovery to minimize the risk of unsuccessful exploration. This study develops a new framework to evaluate the chance of discovery of at least a minimum economic reserves volume in an extensively explored basin. It leverages on the postulation for the determination of probability of hydrocarbon economic success as a building block for the new framework. The model combines the concepts of Minimum Economic Reserves, Discovery Efficiency and Probability to derive an explicit analytical function for discovery efficiency and hydrocarbon probability for a commercial discovery. It digitalizes existing Risk Table to ease the complexity to obtain geological chance of success and hydrocarbon asset evaluation for commerciality. Nine Case studies from the prolific Niger Delta basin of Nigeria are used to validate the model. The result of the semi-digital solution of the model shows that three of the studied cases are commercial whereas the remaining six cases are sub-commercial. The study recommends the application of the new framework for hydrocarbon asset evaluation for chance of commerciality to complement models like the cream off curve to predict chance of commercial discovery of hydrocarbon assets.