Open Access Short Research Article

Generating Electricity from Micro-hydro Power Stations to Feed the Isolated Areas of the National Network

Bilal Abdullah Nasir

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 17-20
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430217

The construction of small-hydro power stations does not require high technologies, but needs to provide a river or stream water is smooth. Through the establishment of small dams on the stream can control the amount of water necessary to rotate the water turbine, which in turn converts the potential energy of water into kinetic energy. Through the transfer of kinetic energy of rotation of the turbine to the generator can convert this energy into electrical energy. The idea of ​​our plan of research for electrical energy from the power of water using small- hydroelectric plants, which can be built on small rivers, streams, and through the construction of small dams to control the amount of water. Electrical energy derived from small- hydroelectric plants could help feed the electrical loads to areas isolated from the national grid and can be linked with the national grid to add additional electric power.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Potential of Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum in Sub-Saharan Africa as Affected by Variety and Sowing Time

Maarouf I. Mohammed, Salma I. Abdalbagi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430215

Renewable bio-energy is receiving worldwide importance in view of depleting fossil energy. Research works on sorghum as bio-fuel crop in sub-Saharan Africa are meager. The study aimed to investigate the potential of sweet sorghum for ethanol production from stem-juice. The experiment was conducted in Sudan, Khartoum State, during 2016-2017. Forty local and exotic sweet sorghum varieties arranged in RCB Design were investigated under irrigated conditions across three sowing times. Yields of cane, juice, sugar, ethanol and related attributes were studied. Highly significant differences (P=.01) were detected among varieties and interaction with sowing time. Ethanol yield potentials for some varieties were comparable to those reported in India and USA (1162-1416 L ha-1). High brix values (20-22%) and cane yields (45-51 ha-1) were encountered. Juice yield was low (3673-13743 L ha-1) probably due to reduced milling efficiency. The exotic materials performed better than the local ones in theoretical ethanol productivity and related attributes other than cane yield. Eight exotic and five local varieties were recommended for ethanol production. None of the Ankolib materials appeared to have notable potential for ethanol production. Interaction of sowing time with variety has great impact on ethanol yield implying the importance of variety option for different sowing times. It was concluded that the study furnished basic data needed for assessing the economic feasibility of ethanol production from irrigated sweet sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa-Sudan.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recovery of Nigerian Heavy Oil: Application of Steam Flooding

Okoro Emmanuel Evans, Mike Onyekonwu, Joseph Ajienka

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 21-38
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430218

Aims: Nigeria has a lot of conventional and heavy oil resources. Although much of the conventional oil resources have been developed since independence, the heavy oil resources have remained underdeveloped due to low recovery based on primary production and consequently doubts about economic viability based on the current fiscal regime. This paper examines the application of Steam Flooding enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to suitable Nigerian heavy oil reservoirs, seeks to develop a diagnostic model to predict the performance, evaluates the economics to determine the viability of the EOR method. The development of heavy oil will increase Nigeria’s oil reserves and production.

Study Design:  Data was collected for two heavy oil reservoirs from two oil companies in Nigeria following a Non-disclosure Agreement (NDA).

Place and Duration of Study: Emerald Energy Institute, University of Port Harcourt Nigeria, 2016 - 2021.

Methodology: The screening criteria of commercially effective EOR methods were applied to select steam flooding for the studied reservoirs. Design of Experiment (DoE) was used to evaluate the reservoirs and operating parameters and to determine their optimum values, which were then used to predict the performance of the reservoirs. The economics of the steam flood technique endorsed for the reservoirs considered were also evaluated using Discounted Cash Flow Analysis (DCFA).

Results: These assessments confirmed that steam flooding technique was technically and economically viable for the heavy oil reservoirs considered. The steam flood was observed to have a good recovery efficiency of 24%, as against the waterflooding technique which had 13% OOIP and natural depletion of 9% for the offshore reservoir. For the onshore reservoir, the recovery efficiency was 20% for steam flood, and 4% for natural depletion. The economic analysis showed that even at a worst-case heavy oil price of US$15, the project was viable.

Conclusion: Steam flooding is viable, can be applied to develop heavy oil reservoirs in Nigeria that meet the screening criteria, and thus increase national oil reserve and production.

Recommendation: The fiscal policy should be adjusted, especially the petroleum profit tax from 85% to 50% as an incentive to operators and investors to embark on steam flooding and other EOR methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Improving the Heat Transfer Rate of Air Conditioning Condenser by Material Optimization

A. A. Adegbola, O. A. Adeaga, A. O. Babalola, A. O. Oladejo, A. S. Alabi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 39-50
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430219

Air conditioning systems have condensers that remove unwanted heat from the refrigerant and transfer the heat outdoors. The optimization of the global exploit of heat exchanging devices is still a burdensome task due to different design parameters involved. There is need for more and substantial research into bettering cooling channel materials so as to ensure elevated performance, better efficiency, greater accuracy, long lasting and low cost heat exchanging. The aim of this research work is to improve the heat transfer rate of air conditioning condenser by optimizing materials for different tube diameters. Simulations using thermal analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis were carried out to determine the better material and fluid respectively. The analysis was done using Analysis System software. Different parameters were calculated from the results obtained and graphs are plotted between various parameters such as heat flux, static pressure, velocity, mass flow rate and total heat transfer. The materials used for CFD analysis are R12 and R22, and for thermal analysis are copper and aluminium. From the CFD analysis, the result shows that R22 has more static pressure, velocity, mass flow rate and total heat transfer than R12 at condenser tube diameter 6 mm. In thermal investigation, the heat flux is more for copper material at condenser tube diameter 6 mm. Copper offers maximum heat flux. Also, refrigerant R22 scores maximum for the heat transfer criteria, but cannot be recommended due to toxicity

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Inability of Wind and Solar Electric Generation to Power Modern Civilization

Wallace Manheimer

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 51-63
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v8i430220

There is a societal push to replace fossil and nuclear fuel, which currently generate ~ 85% of the world’s electric power, with wind and solar powered  generation of electricity. However, there are significant physical, economic, reliability, and environmental barriers to this replacement.  This paper discusses them and concludes that for the foreseeable future, we are stuck with the more conventional sources if we want civilization for the masses to survive.