Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Potential of Balanites aegyptiaca Seed Kernel Oil from Northern Cameroon for Biodiesel valorization

Davy Fiwa Kaoke, Emmanuel Siryabe, Djakaou Iya-Sou, Emmanuel Talla, Patrick Mountapmbene Kouotou

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 21-31
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130222

This research work reports the physicochemical potentialities of Balanites aegyptiaca kernel oil for biodiesel valorization. Balanites seed was sampling from Pitoa, Maroua and Moutourwa localities located from North Cameroon and the kernel oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. The physicochemical and the free fatty acid composition of kernel oils was determined. Among the three samples, those of Pitoa shows the higher oil yield (56.6 %). All the Refractive index of these oils were ranged in ASTM and their kinematic viscosities were small compared to the EN ISO 3104 standard. The Acid values measured were all less than EN 14104 standard and the iodine values were in accordance with EN 14111 standard, whereas, the saponification value for the samples of Maroua (139.5 ± 0.07) was higher than those of Pitoa (123.6 ± 0.04) and Moutourwa (131.5 ± 0.06) and the Peroxide values measured were lower than 10 meq/Kg. Unsaturated fatty acids were higher for the sample of Maroua (78.8 %) than those of Moutourwa (76.9%) and Pitoa (77.7 %). This research work indicate that B.aegyptiaca kernel oil obtainable from North Cameroon as higher yield (50.7-56.6%). The kernel oil shows good physicochemical properties and fatty acids profile which can be valorised as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel.

Place and Duration of Study: School of Chemical Engineering and Minerals Industries - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ngaoundere – Cameroon

 work takes place between October 2020 and Jun 2021.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating of Flow Field and Power Performance on a Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with CFD Simulation

Yanfeng Zhang, Zhiping Guo, Xiaowen Song, Xinyu Zhu, Chang Cai, Qing’an Li

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130223

Forecasting the power performance and flow field of straight-blade vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and paying attention to the dynamic stall can enhance more adaptability to high turbulence and complicated wind conditions in cities environment. According to the blade element-momentum theory, the force of blade is analyzed in one period of revolution based on the structural characteristics of straight blade airfoil. The power performance of VAWT obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is compared with experiment to estimate the accuracy about the numerical simulation results. As a result, the trend of average value of simulation Cpower is entirely consistent with the value of experiment data, and the extreme value of average Cpower of VAWT is 0.225 for tip speed ration (TSR) λ=2.19 when the freestream velocity is 8 m/s. The flow separation around the blade surface also gradually changes with the azimuth angle increasing, and the maximum pressure difference on the blade surface appears in the upstream. In the case of high leaf tip velocity, the synthetic velocity is much larger than the incoming wind velocity, and the angle of synthetic velocity increases slightly with the increase of blade tangential velocity. Thus, the angles of attack are very close in two TSRs λ=2.19 and 2.58. The research provides a computational model and theoretical basis for predicting wind turbine flow field to improve wind turbine power performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Coconut Shell Activated Carbon Catalyst for the Pyrolysis of Waste Sac Bags into Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels

Kelechi Angelina Iheonye, Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Ibrahim Kolawole Muritala, Ayoade Kuye

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 43-50
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130224

Aim: The use of synthetic catalysts in pyrolysis of waste plastics into hydrocarbon fuels is the common practice, these synthetic/ commercial catalysts are not readily available in Nigeria. The aim of this research paper is to prepare and characterize and test the catalytic performance of a locally made catalyst for waste plastic to hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis.

Study Design: locally made catalyst was prepared from coconut shells, its elemental composition, structural morphology and pore properties investigated using appropriate instruments and methods.

Place and Duration: The experiments were carried out at the Petroleum Development Laboratory, situated at the Gas Engineering building, University of Port-Harcourt Nigeria. It took about 18 months to complete this study.

Methodology: Thermal and chemical activation methods were used to prepare the local catalyst from coconut shells. Scanning electron microscopy method was used to investigate the morphology and texture of the coconut shell activated carbon catalyst. Response Surface Method (RSM) in design expert software 12.0 was used to design the experiment, and investigate the effect of operating parameters on the response variable.

Results: The assessment of coconut shell activated carbon shows it can be used as an alternate to synthetic catalysts. This is because more than 60 % fuel oil was recovered when it was used in the pyrolysis of waste sac bags

Conclusion: Coconut shell activated carbon is effective in the conversion of waste sac bags high purity hydrocarbon fuels such as aviation kerosene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Behavior of Air Parcels, using PIXE, Hysplit and Wind Rose in the Metropolitan Zone of Toluca Valley, Mexico

Angélica Flores Ortiz, María de la Luz Jiménez Núñez, Raúl Venancio Díaz Godoy

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 51-66
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130225

Aim: The objective of this work was to determine the behavior of the trajectories of the air plots in two sites (San Mateo Atenco-(SM) and San Lorenzo Tepaltitlán-(SL)), in the atmosphere of the Metropolitan Zone of the Toluca Valley (MZTV).

Methodology: In the atmosphere of the MZTV, using HYSPLIT a Backward trajectory direction analysis was performed from June 29 to July 8, 2021, considering for each day the summertime schedules of the center, indicating its Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). An ANOVA analysis (with a significance level of α=0.05) was performed for the concentrations of SM and SL obtained with PIXE, with the objective of seeing the equality of their behavior.

Results: The behavior of the direction of the trajectories of the air plots in both sites is similar and the trajectories for the same day are the same in both sites but different on another day; It was determined that during night-day (19 to 12 h of the following day) the behavior is similar and changes during the remaining time, being variable. In general, the origin of the trajectories of the air plots for both sites of the MZTV is predominantly from the southeast, a situation that was confirmed with Wind Roses. Of the ANOVA analysis, the p-value was in all cases greater than the significance level of 0.05, the null hypothesis was accept, and it is possible to conclude that the elemental chemical composition of PM2.5 have equal means in both sites.

Conclusion: Among other, it is possible to consider the behavior of meteorological parameters and thus take them into account for sampling studies of criteria pollutants such as PM2.5.

Open Access Review Article

A Critical Review on Electric Power Sector for Sustainable Energy Development in Nigeria

Agberegha, Orobome Larry, Nwigbo, Chuka Solomon, Anyanwu, Ikechukwu Samuel, Azaka, Onyemazuwa Andrew, Oyedepo, Sunday Olayinka

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i130221

Electricity is one of the most important invention of Man. It powers the economy and everything in a Nation. This work seeks to carryout a critical review of Nigeria’s energy crisis. A PricewaterhouseCoopers, PwC reports asserts that Nigeria still ranks 2nd worst in the global electricity access charts; a significant portion of electricity is generated from private generators at a higher cost of NGN 120/kWh while grid-based cost NGN 4-5/kWh; more than 50% Nigerians do not have access to electricity, however amongst the other 50% who have access, experience intermittent power supply; 5 - 6 times increase in electricity consumption required to match peer countries with similar GDP per capital; 25 % of potential energy reaches the end-user: Structural inefficiencies across the power value chain prevent electricity from reaching end-users. This work sets out to chronicle Nigeria’s energy crisis: its challenges and prospects. Results from various reviews show that the major issue plaguing the nation’s electricity sector isn’t so much about resources, which the Nation has in abundance, albeit, some in potential state. From the reviews so far, the following are the major problems: 1. The National question 2. Lack of technical know-how 3. Sabotage of government’s efforts and destruction of power sector physical assets. 4. Inconsistency in Policy formulation and implementation. The work therefore, proposes that for the long run, the nation tries to solve her national question; however, for the short run, the Federal Government should adopt the NLNG business model that has produced fantastic results for all its shareholders and stakeholders. The researchers therefore strongly advice the Federal Government to adopt the business model of the Nigeria Liquified Natural Gas, NLNG Company.