Open Access Original Research Article

Design Aspects of Small-Hydropower Plant

Bilal Abdullah Nasir

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230226

Presently, however, Hydroelectric is a source of power that can prove to be available to all, regardless of conditions such as weather. As history showed, a lot of development, as well as alterations, were made to this efficient supply of energy. Hydropower is a positive alternative energy source that nature provides, therefore, its effective usage is not prohibited. Although there are many disadvantages associated with the design and construction of a hydroelectric power plant, the advantageous features are even more enormous. This paper deals with construction and design aspects for the implementation of the small hydroelectric power station. The main parameters can be collected from the site. Then the turbine type and dimensions can be specified. The generator specifications,which is the main part in the system, for hydro-power stations can be obtained from the determination of turbine output power. These specifications involve mainly the rated power in KVA, the type of system, system frequency, the type of stator winding connection, rated load voltage, rated load current, load power factor, generator speed, method of the system cooling, and the generator type of excitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Performance Analysis of Convective Drying of Sorghum Gruel Residue

C. N. Okoro, J. Isa

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230227

This research is concerned with the energy performance analysis of convective drying of sorghum gruel residue. The process was carried out on a hot air dryer conducted at four drying air temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C respectively, three different air velocities 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2m/s and three different varieties of sorghum gruel residue, Caudatum,Durra and Guineense respectively. The effects of drying temperature and air velocities on the specific energy consumption, energy efficiency, drying efficiency and thermal efficiency were investigated. The specific energy consumption for Caudatum,Durra, Guineensevarieties ranges from 169530.001 J/kg - 71433.758 J/kg, 170557.25 J/kg - 76732.96 J/kg and 179367.266 J/kg - 83750.923 J/kg respectively while the energy efficiency for Caudatum,Durra, Guineensevarieties ranges from 35.5% - 13.934%, 31.188% - 13.836% and 28.463% - 13.157% respectively. The results of this study also confirmed that the convective drying process is energy intensive and drying fresh agricultural produce with heated-air dryers requires a relatively large amount of energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of the Effect of Process Parameters on the Yield of Fermentable Sugar from Tuber Peels Via Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis

Onoh Ikechukwu Maxwell, Anho Lawrence Oghenerivwe, Egwuagu Onyekachi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230228

The aim of this work is to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of water yam peels using HCl, H2S04 acids and cellulase enzyme. The cellulase was secreted from Aspergillus niger (A.niger). The proximate analysis of the substrate showed that water yam peel is a lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulose composition of 48%. The effect of the process parameters (time, temperature, acid concentration and pH) on the yield of glucose in acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of the water yam peel was respectively investigated. Maximum glucose yield of 44.5% was obtained after 3 days of enzymatic hydrolysis at 30°C and pH 5. The HCl acid hydrolysis showed a maximum glucose yield of 27.3% at 70°C, 5% HCl after 180 minutes. The glucose yield in H2S04 hydrolysis was relatively lower than that of the HCl with a maximum yield of 26.5% at 70°C, 5% H2SO4 after 180 minutes. In addition to, the functional groups present in the glucose synthesized from ground water yam peels and the standard glucose were evaluated using Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The FTIR results showed similarities in the functional groups present in both sugars. Yam peel can be used for the production of glucose and further fermentative process to produce ethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Monovalent and Divalent Ions on Imported Biopolymer-Xanthan Gum and Locally Formulated Biopolymers-Gum Arabic and Terminalia Mantaly

Okechukwu Ezeh, Sunday Sunday Ikiensikimama, Onyewuchi Akaranta

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 33-46
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230229

Aim: Polymer flooding is used for enhanced oil recovery. Only polymers that can withstand harsh environments work best. HPAM is mostly the polymer used for enhanced oil recovery because it is available and cheap, but it does not withstand high temperatures and high salinity reservoirs. Xanthan Gum withstands high temperatures and high salinity reservoirs, but it is expensive and plugs the reservoir. The aim of this study is to compare the salinity stability of gum Arabic and Terminalia Mantaly, a novel biopolymer, with commercial Xanthan gum.

Study Design: Locally formulated biopolymers from gum Arabic exudates bought from Bauchi State in Nigeria and from Terminalia Mantaly exudates obtained from the University of Port Harcourt. The appropriate rheological tests were carried out at the laboratory.

Place and Duration of Study: The laboratory experiments were carried out at the department of Petroleum Engineering, Covenant University, Ota in Ogun State of Nigeria between 2020 and 2021.

Methodology: The gum Arabic, Terminalia Mantaly and Xanthan Gum powders were dissolved in deionized water to get various concentrations in ppm. The polymers were mixed and kept for 24 hours to achieve a homogenous solution. The Automated OFITE® Viscometer at different revolutions per minute (RPM) of 3 (Gel), 6, 30, 60, 100, 200, 300, and 600 was used to measure the rheological properties of the various concentrations before Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) of various concentrations were added and allowed to hydrate for another 24 hours before measuring their rheological properties again.

Results: The study showed that Xanthan Gum, Gum Arabic, and Terminalia Mantaly biopolymers can be used in high salinity reservoirs. Terminalia Mantaly, a novel biopolymer, is insensitive to salinity in monovalent and divalent ions.

Conclusion: Xanthan gum exhibited high viscosity even at low concentrations. Gum Arabic exhibited good tolerance to salinity at NaCl 3.5%. Terminalia Mantaly was very stable with both monovalent and divalent ions. Divalent ions have more effects on polymers than monovalent ions in reservoirs.

Recommendation: It is recommended that Terminalia Mantaly be investigated more, as it can replace imported biopolymers for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

Open Access Review Article

Prospects and Challenges of Geothermal Energy in Uganda

Geoffrey S. Mutumba, Simon Echegu, Muyiwa S. Adaramola

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i230230

This paper explores geothermal energy use as a renewable energy option in Uganda. It is discussed in pursuit of sustainable development. Uganda has been undergoing fast economic growth particularly as demonstrated by its resilience against the effects of COVID-19, it must develop its renewable energy resources to match this growth. In this paper, we present the findings of an exploratory research to ascertain potential of geothermal energy for Uganda of 1500MW (3.6% of overall energy potential). The prospects and challenges of geothermal energy development are discussed. In concluding remarks good policies with strong political will, manpower training, financial support for research, and financial and subsidy incentive programs.