Open Access Minireview Article

The Role of Alkaline/alkaline Earth Metal Oxides in CO2 Capture: A Concise Review

Emmanuel Victor, Umenweke Great C, Ngozichukwu B

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 46-64
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i330235

Reducing the concentration of CO2 from the atmosphere has attracted a lot of attention given the rapid level of industrialization in the world. Process Industries are one of the major contributors to this pollution in terms of the incessant release of CO2 from flue gas streams. In recent times metal oxides have received a lot of attention as potential adsorbents for solving this problem.They find application in post-, pre-, and oxy-combustion conditions. Their basic sites plus a lower charge to radius ratio increase their ionic nature and site basicity and facilitate the capture of this pernicious gas from flue gas streams by reacting to form carbonates, which when heated liberates an almost pure stream of CO2 which can be sequestered, thereby, aiding the release of environmentally benign flue gas streams to the atmosphere. This work takes a concise review of these metal oxides that have been widely studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of Hybrid Wind and Solar Power Generator at Izazi, Tanzania

Arthur M. Omari

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i330232

Solar can be converted directly into electrical energy by using solar photovoltaic (PV) which convert solar radiation by the photoelectric effect, wind energy can be converted into electrical energy by using alternator coupled with a wind turbine. Solar power system consists of solar panels, solar PV cells and batteries for storing DC energy. Solar energy is available only during the day time whereas wind energy is available throughout the day; it is only depending upon the atmospheric conditions. Wind and solar are complimentary to each other and therefore makes the system more reliable throughout the year. The study at Izazi village, Iringa – Tanzania shows that the available solar energy and wind energy are potential and sufficient for solar-wind hybrid technology. Using the data obtained from NASA for local wind and solar resources for Izazi village Iringa, Tanzania. The simulation using homer analysis software, shows that to reach the minimum cost, the solar PV modules should contribute more energy than wind turbine. The optimization results obtained therefore shows the solar-wind hybrid system can provide a solution for supplying electricity at Izazi. This model result from Izazi village can be applied easily to other villages with similar environmental condition .

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Hazard and Risk Related Activities at Npdc-Ogini Oil Field Flow Station, Okpaile in Isoko North, Delta State, Nigeria

Asomaku Sunny Oghenefegor, Bolaji B. Babatunde, Wali Elekwachi, O. Emelu Victoria

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 17-35
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i330233

The activities of oil, Gas and energy contains numerous hazards which could lead to multiple disasters such as loss of capital, damage to reputation, and also degrading the environment. The Essence of job hazards analysis and risk assessment is to design a safe working environment and to control and reduced potential hazards.  Both primary and secondary data sources were employed in this study. Topographic statistics were also obtained from goggle earth and STRM (30M x 30M resolution) download from the United State Geological Survey. Questionnaires were administered to 100 people from 3 different department at NPDC-Ogini flow station in a confidential manner. A descriptive statistics such as mean, mode, median and standard deviation were used through the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20.2 and Microsoft Excel 2007 software to analyze the data generated. Inferential statistics were used to test the hypothesis.  The hypothesis were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study has identified associated hazards and the risk level attached to the confirmed activities of Ogini field flow station. The analysis show that the F. calculated value was 0.759 and the F-table value was 0.471. Since the F- table value is less than the F-calculated value .The result of the hypothesis has also shown that there is no significant relationship between job hazards analysis and risk assessment of the flow station activities. Companies in this sector should have a proactive thinking and attitude towards all activities and also have a reasonable level of preparedness and preparedness plans in place in case of any incidence. If these hazards are properly managed and controlled with all measures in place and also adhering to all regulatory agencies both locally and internationally, the companies will achieve a zero goal in incidence and accidents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Red Onion Skin Extract Derivatives as Oilfield Scale Inhibitors

Dominica Una, Dulu Appah, Amieibibama Joseph, Onyewuchi Akaranta

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 36-45
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i330234

With growing awareness of the environmental impact of some conventional production chemicals and concerns about the depletion of non-renewable natural resources, increased efforts are being made to use renewable and non-toxic materials in the oilfield. In this study, a potential green scale inhibitor was developed from the skin of red onions and evaluated for calcium sulphate, calcium carbonate and barium scale inhibition. Based on the different extraction processes utilized, two products were obtained and characterized using FTIR and SEM and evaluated using a static jar test procedure. The FTIR results confirmed the bands that make up the major constituents (quercetin) and other important compounds, which supports the present study. Laboratory evaluation show that ROSE can efficiently inhibit calcium sulphate scale and barium sulphate scales with a good inhibition rate of greater than 75% at an optimum dosage. Effect of temperature and dosage on inhibition performance revealed that ROSE is stable at higher temperatures and can effectively inhibit calcium and barium sulphate scales at nearly the same rate without degradation but requires additional dosage to produce same result for calcium carbonate scale. Also, the effect of time reveals that scale inhibitor performs a continuous CaSO4 and CaCO3 inhibition. Not only does ROSE perform excellently in the laboratory condition as a green scale inhibitor, but it also show a relatively close performance rate when compared to an existing commercial inhibitor which indicate that ROSE has a high potential for use in the oil industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of the Rheological and Proppant Handling Capability of Detarium microcarpum as a Viscosifier in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Design

Adali Francis Eromosele, Dosunmu Adewale, Ogbonna Joel

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 65-79
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2021/v9i330236

The most frequent viscosifier used in hydraulic fracturing fluid design is guar and its derivatives. However, Guar leaves residues in solution, it is unstable at higher temperatures, and is not immune to market dynamics of demand and supply. This research aims to source for an alternate hydrocolloid for hydraulic fracturing fluid development. Detarium microcarpum (local), Cyamopsis tetragonoloba(imported) and polyanionic cellulose-regular PAC-R (Imported) were sourced, isolated, and used in carrier fluid design. The rheological properties of the three fluids were investigated at 27°C, 57°C, and 85°C. The rheological models were generated and compared with the imported samples as the control. Also, to analyse the proppant handling capacity of each of the carrier fluids, the geometry of the proppant grains and the rheology of the carrier fluids were used to compute the coefficient of drag, the drag force and the settling velocity of the carrier fluids.