Open Access Short Research Article

Design of a Heating Chamber for Air Turbines: A Method of Optimizing Its Efficiency

Excel E. Adeniji, Taiwo O. Asonja, Taiwo Alare

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 48-53
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i130271

Increasing comfort, conveniences and reducing carbon-emission into the atmosphere have been the research focus of many researchers in various field of science. SDGs have one of her goals to be zero carbon emission. In order to achieve this goal, carbon combustion must be eliminated in heat engines. This can be done by developing thermodynamics processes that would not use organic fuel as their working fluid. Following this knowledge, researchers found the use of abundant natural resources such as solar, water, wind, and air known as renewable energies also hydrogen and synergy gases as replacement to carbon combustion. However, due to high first cost of these renewable energies and their low mechanical and overall efficiencies, they failed in some applications.

In order to increase the mechanical efficiency of air turbines, the internal energy of air must be increase. Therefore, this research paper developed a heating chamber for air turbines working on an isobaric expansion process in order to raise the temperature of air to the required temperature for it to roll turbine rotor blades efficiently. The heating compartment is intended to follow the adiabatic compression process of an air compressor section of the air turbine layout. The heating compartment has it heat source to be an electric heater and the compressed air as it heat sink. The thermal and economic efficiency of the heating chamber as a section of air turbine was determine using Levelized Cost Method of Moran.

The heating compartment raised the compressed air temperature to the required hot temperature at a constant pressure.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Possibility of Biogas Production from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Hemp and Manure– A perspective in Germany

Klaus Dölle, David E. Kurzmann

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i130266

Replacement of fossil-based resources with renewable resources to offset the use for heating and electricity production are important for today’s social and economic growth and energy security. Anaerobic fermentation and the production of biogas generates an alternative, carbon-neutral, renewable fuel that easily can be generated from local, low-cost organic waste materials and used as replacement for fossil fuel based gaseous products.

The anaerobic digestion experiments ran for 240 hours at a temperature of 39°C ± 2°C for the duration of the experiment.

The combined biogas production of hemp residues and hemp stems showed that the average reduced volatile solids content for hemp residue 1 and 2 was 0.98 g with a combined biogas production of 231.31 ml/g. For the hemp stems 1 and 2 the average reduced volatile solids content was 4.06 g and the combined biogas production was 64.90 ml/g respectively. Cow manure showed average reduced volatile solids content of 0.76 g and a combined biogas production of 305.69 ml/g respectively. The biogas content without CO2 was 62% for the manure samples, 55% for the hemp stems, and 57% for the hemp residues.

The application of co-digestion utilizing cow manure and hemp-based waste material, as feedstock could be an option, helping to increase energy security, biological diversity, and sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Root and Energy Transformation Stages

Mustapha Umar Abdullahi

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 27-37
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i130268

After allowing transformations of different forms of energy into other forms with the aid of devices and agents, all the associated information were observed severally. In which mean values for each were recorded. The paper is launching new resultant initiatives, namely energy root and energy transformation stages. And hence, energy is defined as square rate of a mass of moving mass in a given suitable area \(E=\frac{\mathrm{mA}}{\mathrm{t}^{2}}\) mathematically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Wind Energy Production from Vertical Axis Wind Turbine on Offshore Production Platforms in Trinidad

Rikhi Ramkissoon, Krishpersad Manohar, Anthony Adeyanju

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 38-47
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i130269

Aims: To estimate the available power that can be generated from wind on Oil and Gas production Platforms offshore Trinidad.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus. Data collected at a bpTT production platform offshore east coast Trinidad between January 2019 to November 2019.

Methodology: The East coast of Trinidad was chosen due to the presence of high yearly wind speeds. The wind data was collected 80 kilometers off Trinidad Southeast coast, east of the bpTT Cashima production platform for the year 2019. Wind speeds varied from 5.3 meters per second in October to 8.8 meters per second in June. The overall wind speed average for the year 2019 was 7.4 meters per second. The vertical axis wind turbine considered here was modeled using Parashivoiu's double multiple streamtube model concept. The VAWT modelled had 3 NACA0018 blade profile, a blade length of 2.5 meters and a diameter of 2 meters.

Results: The modeled vertical axis wind turbine monthly total power output varied from 5.43 KW to 20.34 KW. The daily average expected power output from the VAWT ranged from 175 Watts to 678 Watts. It can be observed that the months January to July gave higher daily and monthly average power generation due to these months having the highest wind speeds due to local weather conditions.

Conclusion: The VAWT modelled in this study can generate on average, 463 Watts of power per day with a peak average of 678 Watts of power per day in June from a single turbine. The total average power produced for the year 2019 was 151.11 KW. The turbine was sized as not to have a large footprint on the offshore platform. It is demonstrated here that substantial support and rationale is needed for the potential advancement of VAWT’s for conditions that prevail offshore Trinidad, owing to their lower extraction costs and more robust geometry due to the use of existing offshore platforms.

Open Access Review Article

The Trajectory of Evolution of State Participation in Natural Resources in Developing Nations under International Law: The Nigerian Experience

Dominic Obilor Akabuiro

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 12-26
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i130267

The growth and development of a nation largely depends on how its natural resources are utilized for the good of the people. However, the narrative in some developing countries, particularly Nigeria is scary and this has birthed huge concerns on the global scene. The aim of this paper is to examine the history and growth of natural resource development by States for the betterment of the people in selected oil countries with emphasis on Nigeria. Nigeria’s experience with state participation in the development of its natural resources is uniquely discussed in this paper because; Nigeria being the most populous African nation and having the largest oil and gas deposits in Africa still has almost half of its population living below the poverty line.

The study examined state participation in four different jurisdictions including; Venezuela, Indonesia, Angola and Nigeria. Focus is placed on the Nigeria experience. The study adopted a qualitative and doctrinal research methodology.

At the root of all these frictions with natural resource development in Nigeria is the State’s inadequate policy and control with emphasis on localization to ensure that the center holds.

Nigerian state’s participation in natural resource development has grown from mere participation agreement to state corporation participation as a player in the oil and gas industry. Indigenous companies being enabled by the local content legislation have actively participated in the development of natural resources. However, while the aim of state participation in the development of natural resource is to improve the social and economic wellbeing of citizens, it goes without saying that the Nigerian people are fettered with resource injustice of which the state is culpable. It is not new that Nigeria still lacks and pays heavily for what it produces in abundance. It is called the resource curse syndrome.