Open Access Short Research Article

Fermentation of Cassava Skin as Additional Octan Value of Fuel

Salsabila Azzahra, Mhd Halkis

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 31-35
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i230274

The lack of fossil energy sources requires us to look for alternative energy sources. This study uses cassava peel as a renewable energy source. The experimental method of the fermentation process shows that the smaller the density produced, the greater the percentage of ethanol content. Bioethanol from cassava peel initially still contains water, and the fermentation process improves the quality of the fuel mix. The highest percentage of alcohol occurred on the fourth day of fermentation, which was 60%, each variation of ethanol can be seen as the highest ethanol content with fermentation time. Gasoline has a low octane rating and will produce pollutants such as CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and Pb. These chemicals can be reduced by increasing the octane rating using ethanol. Fermented cassava peel may be an alternative to bioethanol.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Potential for Methane Emissions Caused by the Livestock Sector in the Region of Kankan, Guinea

Ansoumane Sakouvogui, Amadou Sidibe, Ibrahima Sory Diallo, Mamby Keita

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i230270

Man has always organized his living space near animal farms. Nevertheless, the population growth and the healthiness due to the droppings of these animals have motivated work on the recovery of animal waste. This study follows this logic. It consists in the evaluation of the potential of methane emissions due to the livestock sector in the Administrative Region of Kankan. The methodological approach adopted for this study consists in carrying out a field survey for the census of animal herds, the use of data from different livestock services and the formulas have enabled us to make an estimate of methane emissions from the sector. livestock in the region. The surveys took place from December 15, 2021 to March 30, 2022. The results obtained show that the greatest quantity of emissions is recorded in Siguiri (25772923 kg/year), followed respectively by Kérouané (23452057 kg/year), Mandiana (23023031 kg/year), Kouroussa (20515857 kg/year), and Kankan (16144187 kg/year). With total annual emissions in the region of 108908054 kg/year. The results of this research is a first estimate of the CH4 emission potential due to the livestock sector in the administrative region of Kankan. This study must be encouraged by authorities at all levels of the environmental sector.

Open Access Original Research Article

Likelihood of Adopting Briquette Technology in Abundance of Competitive Energy Sources: A Case Study of Morogoro Urban and Rural Districts, Tanzania

Y. M. Yustas, W. M. Tarimo, S. A. Mbacho, D. O. Kiobia, N. R. Makange, A. T. Kashaija, F. R. Silungwe

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 11-20
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i230272

Firewood and charcoal are the primary energy resources in many developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the unstainable collection and use of these resources negatively impact the environment. Equally, using briquettes as green energy resources can address the energy shortage and conserves the environment. However, the information on people’s preference to use briquettes instead of other alternative energy sources is scarce. Furthermore, studies demonstrating the briquette technology preferences and adoption to prospective users, including youth and women in urban and rural areas, are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Morogoro district to (1) characterise the respondents’ demographic issues useful for evaluation of people's preferences, (2) assess the preference for briquette fuels, particularly for youth and women, and (3) evaluate the extent of using the briquettes as sources of energy as compared to other alternative sources of energy. The household survey involved 330 respondents in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas of Morogoro. The areas were chosen to represent the Tanzania sceneries. Besides, supplementary key informants’ interviews involved village leaders, charcoal retailers and other people with knowledge of briquette technology. The results show that over 95% of respondents preferred to use briquette as an alternative energy source and expressed their willingness to engage in the briquette business. Additionally, the study shows low use of briquettes compared to other energy sources like charcoal and firewood in urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between men and women in their willingness to join the briquette business (p-value =0.517). Therefore, a few people are aware of briquette technology. This study recommends increasing the awareness of briquette technology through training youths and women on briquette technology and insisting on the availability of briquette products and stoves. In addition, assessing the factors hindering the briquettes from being a hundred per cent preferred by people is a point of research interest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biogas Production Potential from Anaerobic Co-digestion of Grape Pomace

Klaus Dolle, Nicole Weizmann, Jydon R. Lang

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 21-30
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i230273

Grape cultivation and wine production has been in practice since 7000 BC in ancient China. Today, top wine producing countries are France, Italy, and Spain, including the United States. New York State is the third largest wine producing state in the US, with over 28 million gallons produced in 2017. Wine pomace, the residue from wine making after pressing could be used for the production of electricity and heat replacing fossil resources. One alternative route could be anaerobic fermentation of wine making residues for the production of electricity and heat from the produced biogas.

This research investigated the cumulative biogas production from anaerobic fermentation of differently prepared red wine grape pomace. Red wine grape pomace was used as received, prepared by blending using a laboratory benchtop blender, refined using a Valley beater apparatus, and cooking the refined red wine grape pomace for 2 hours at 98°C. The pH of each solution was adjusted to 8.50 with 20% Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) solution. 300 g of each solution and 30 g of bacteria inoculate was filled into a 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask that contained a magnetic stirrer. The anaerobic fermentation experiment have been run in duplicate, lasted for up to 170 hours, at a temperature of 39°C ± 2°C.

Untreated red wine grape pomace had the lowest cumulative biogas production of 93 ml and 151 ml.

Blended grapes showed a cumulative biogas production of 283 ml and 243 ml respectively. Refined red wine grape pomace generated the highest biogas production with 566 ml and 864 ml, followed by refined and cooked red wine grape pomace with a biogas production of 365 ml and 830 ml. The maximum biogas composition without CO2 was 70% and the minimum biogas composition was 55%.

Pre-treatment such as refining, blending, and heat treatment can increase biogas production and lead to a possible lower retention time in the fermentation vessel due faster biomass conversion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Raphia Palm (R. vinifera) Seeds Briquettes with Cassava Starch as Binder

Bello Abdulganiyu, Alex Okibe Edeoja, Jacob Sunday Ibrahim, Karl Aondona Kwaghger

Journal of Energy Research and Reviews, Page 36-62
DOI: 10.9734/jenrr/2022/v11i230275

The evaluation of the potentials of Raphia palm seeds briquettes as fuel source was carried out to obtain optimum particle size, binder ratio and compaction pressure with cassava starch as binder for domestic heating applications. The seeds were collected, dried, hammer-milled and sieved into four different particle sizes (1.18, 1.70, 2.36 and 3.35 mm) and were densified. Four compaction pressures (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 MPa) and four binder ratios (15, 20, 25 and 30 %) were used. Proximate analysis of the briquettes was carried out in a bomb calorimeter and their effects on the combustion properties of the briquettes evaluated using the least significant difference (LSD) by employing two-way analysis of variance. The results revealed that the briquette with particle size 3.35 mm, binder ratio 20 % and compaction pressure 2.5 MPa gave the highest energy value of 12,785 kJ/kg, fixed carbon of 10.91 %, volatile matter of 64.30 %, ash content of 11.85 % and moisture content of 12.86 % which was the best quality briquette compared to the other samples. A predictive model for the heat value of the briquettes was developed and found to be adequate (p-value ≤ 0.0001) for use to predict the heat value of the briquettes produced. Optimization of the energy value of the briquettes was also carried to determine the optimum heat value and the probability that the result is achievable was 100 %. The optimization process gave the heat value of the briquettes to be 12,821.7 kJ/kg at the optimal condition value (24.12 % binder ratio, 1.18 % particle size and 3.00 MPa compaction pressure). The briquettes show good promise for use as fuel for household heating and small scale industrial applications.